Plane Parameters

Content

Complete Parameter List


This is a complete list of the parameters which can be set via the MAVLink protocol in the EEPROM of your APM to control vehicle behaviour. This list is automatically generated from the latest ardupilot source code, and so may contain parameters which are not yet in the stable released versions of the code.


Contents

ArduPlane Parameters

Eeprom format version number (ArduPlane:FORMAT_VERSION)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This value is incremented when changes are made to the eeprom format

Software Type (ArduPlane:SYSID_SW_TYPE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is used by the ground station to recognise the software type (eg ArduPlane vs ArduCopter)

MAVLink system ID of this vehicle (ArduPlane:SYSID_THISMAV)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Allows setting an individual MAVLink system id for this vehicle to distinguish it from others on the same network

  • Range: 1 255

Ground station MAVLink system ID (ArduPlane:SYSID_MYGCS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The identifier of the ground station in the MAVLink protocol. Don’t change this unless you also modify the ground station to match.

  • Range: 1 255

CLI Enable (ArduPlane:CLI_ENABLED)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This enables/disables the checking for three carriage returns on telemetry links on startup to enter the diagnostics command line interface

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Autotune level (ArduPlane:AUTOTUNE_LEVEL)

Level of aggressiveness for autotune. When autotune is run a lower AUTOTUNE_LEVEL will result in a ‘softer’ tune, with less agressive gains. For most users a level of 6 is recommended.

  • Range: 1 10
  • Increment: 1

Telemetry startup delay (ArduPlane:TELEM_DELAY)

The amount of time (in seconds) to delay radio telemetry to prevent an Xbee bricking on power up

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: seconds

GCS PID tuning mask (ArduPlane:GCS_PID_MASK)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

bitmask of PIDs to send MAVLink PID_TUNING messages for

  • Bitmask: 0:Roll,1:Pitch,2:Yaw
  • Value Meaning
    0 None
    1 Roll
    2 Pitch
    4 Yaw

Rudder Mix (ArduPlane:KFF_RDDRMIX)

The amount of rudder mix to apply during aileron movement 0 = 0 %, 1 = 100%

  • Range: 0 1
  • Increment: 0.01

Throttle to Pitch Mix (ArduPlane:KFF_THR2PTCH)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Throttle to pitch feed-forward gain.

  • Range: 0 5
  • Increment: 0.01

Low throttle pitch down trim (ArduPlane:STAB_PITCH_DOWN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the amount of down pitch to add in FBWA and AUTOTUNE modes when at low throttle. No down trim is added when throttle is above TRIM_THROTTLE. Below TRIM_THROTTLE downtrim is added in proportion to the amount the throttle is below TRIM_THROTTLE. At zero throttle the full downpitch specified in this parameter is added. This parameter is meant to help keep airspeed up when flying in FBWA mode with low throttle, such as when on a landing approach, without relying on an airspeed sensor. A value of 2 degrees is good for many planes, although a higher value may be needed for high drag aircraft.

  • Range: 0 15
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: Degrees

Glide slope minimum (ArduPlane:GLIDE_SLOPE_MIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the minimum altitude change for a waypoint before a glide slope will be used instead of an immediate altitude change. The default value is 15 meters, which helps to smooth out waypoint missions where small altitude changes happen near waypoints. If you don’t want glide slopes to be used in missions then you can set this to zero, which will disable glide slope calculations. Otherwise you can set it to a minimum number of meters of altitude error to the destination waypoint before a glide slope will be used to change altitude.

  • Range: 0 1000
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: meters

Glide slope threshold (ArduPlane:GLIDE_SLOPE_THR)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the height above the glide slope the plane may be before rebuilding a glide slope. This is useful for smoothing out an autotakeoff

  • Range: 0 100
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: meters

Stick Mixing (ArduPlane:STICK_MIXING)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

When enabled, this adds user stick input to the control surfaces in auto modes, allowing the user to have some degree of flight control without changing modes. There are two types of stick mixing available. If you set STICK_MIXING to 1 then it will use “fly by wire” mixing, which controls the roll and pitch in the same way that the FBWA mode does. This is the safest option if you usually fly ArduPlane in FBWA or FBWB mode. If you set STICK_MIXING to 2 then it will enable direct mixing mode, which is what the STABILIZE mode uses. That will allow for much more extreme maneuvers while in AUTO mode.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 FBWMixing
    2 DirectMixing

Use FBWA steering in AUTO (ArduPlane:AUTO_FBW_STEER)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

When enabled this option gives FBWA navigation and steering in AUTO mode. This can be used to allow manual stabilised piloting with waypoint logic for triggering payloads. With this enabled the pilot has the same control over the plane as in FBWA mode, and the normal AUTO navigation is completely disabled. This option is not recommended for normal use.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Takeoff throttle min speed (ArduPlane:TKOFF_THR_MINSPD)

Minimum GPS ground speed in m/s used by the speed check that un-suppresses throttle in auto-takeoff. This can be be used for catapult launches where you want the motor to engage only after the plane leaves the catapult, but it is preferable to use the TKOFF_THR_MINACC and TKOFF_THR_DELAY parameters for catapult launches due to the errors associated with GPS measurements. For hand launches with a pusher prop it is strongly advised that this parameter be set to a value no less than 4 m/s to provide additional protection against premature motor start. Note that the GPS velocity will lag the real velocity by about 0.5 seconds. The ground speed check is delayed by the TKOFF_THR_DELAY parameter.

  • Range: 0 30
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: m/s

Takeoff throttle min acceleration (ArduPlane:TKOFF_THR_MINACC)

Minimum forward acceleration in m/s/s before arming the ground speed check in auto-takeoff. This is meant to be used for hand launches. Setting this value to 0 disables the acceleration test which means the ground speed check will always be armed which could allow GPS velocity jumps to start the engine. For hand launches and bungee launches this should be set to around 15.

  • Range: 0 30
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: m/s/s

Takeoff throttle delay (ArduPlane:TKOFF_THR_DELAY)

This parameter sets the time delay (in 1/10ths of a second) that the ground speed check is delayed after the forward acceleration check controlled by TKOFF_THR_MINACC has passed. For hand launches with pusher propellers it is essential that this is set to a value of no less than 2 (0.2 seconds) to ensure that the aircraft is safely clear of the throwers arm before the motor can start. For bungee launches a larger value can be used (such as 30) to give time for the bungee to release from the aircraft before the motor is started.

  • Range: 0 127
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: 0.1 seconds

Takeoff tail dragger elevator (ArduPlane:TKOFF_TDRAG_ELEV)

This parameter sets the amount of elevator to apply during the initial stage of a takeoff. It is used to hold the tail wheel of a taildragger on the ground during the initial takeoff stage to give maximum steering. This option should be combined with the TKOFF_TDRAG_SPD1 option and the GROUND_STEER_ALT option along with tuning of the ground steering controller. A value of zero means to bypass the initial “tail hold” stage of takeoff. Set to zero for hand and catapult launch. For tail-draggers you should normally set this to 100, meaning full up elevator during the initial stage of takeoff. For most tricycle undercarriage aircraft a value of zero will work well, but for some tricycle aircraft a small negative value (say around -20 to -30) will apply down elevator which will hold the nose wheel firmly on the ground during initial acceleration. Only use a negative value if you find that the nosewheel doesn’t grip well during takeoff. Too much down elevator on a tricycle undercarriage may cause instability in steering as the plane pivots around the nosewheel. Add down elevator 10 percent at a time.

  • Range: -100 100
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Percent

Takeoff tail dragger speed1 (ArduPlane:TKOFF_TDRAG_SPD1)

This parameter sets the airspeed at which to stop holding the tail down and transition to rudder control of steering on the ground. When TKOFF_TDRAG_SPD1 is reached the pitch of the aircraft will be held level until TKOFF_ROTATE_SPD is reached, at which point the takeoff pitch specified in the mission will be used to “rotate” the pitch for takeoff climb. Set TKOFF_TDRAG_SPD1 to zero to go straight to rotation. This should be set to zero for hand launch and catapult launch. It should also be set to zero for tricycle undercarriages unless you are using the method above to genetly hold the nose wheel down. For tail dragger aircraft it should be set just below the stall speed.

  • Range: 0 30
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: m/s

Takeoff rotate speed (ArduPlane:TKOFF_ROTATE_SPD)

This parameter sets the airspeed at which the aircraft will “rotate”, setting climb pitch specified in the mission. If TKOFF_ROTATE_SPD is zero then the climb pitch will be used as soon as takeoff is started. For hand launch and catapult launches a TKOFF_ROTATE_SPD of zero should be set. For all ground launches TKOFF_ROTATE_SPD should be set above the stall speed, usually by about 10 to 30 percent

  • Range: 0 30
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: m/s

Takeoff throttle slew rate (ArduPlane:TKOFF_THR_SLEW)

This parameter sets the slew rate for the throttle during auto takeoff. When this is zero the THR_SLEWRATE parameter is used during takeoff. For rolling takeoffs it can be a good idea to set a lower slewrate for takeoff to give a slower acceleration which can improve ground steering control. The value is a percentage throttle change per second, so a value of 20 means to advance the throttle over 5 seconds on takeoff. Values below 20 are not recommended as they may cause the plane to try to climb out with too little throttle.

  • Range: 0 127
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: percent

Takeoff flap percentage (ArduPlane:TKOFF_FLAP_PCNT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The amount of flaps (as a percentage) to apply in automatic takeoff

  • Range: 0 100
  • Units: Percent

FBWA taildragger channel (ArduPlane:FBWA_TDRAG_CHAN)

This is a RC input channel which when it goes above 1700 enables FBWA taildragger takeoff mode. It should be assigned to a momentary switch. Once this feature is enabled it will stay enabled until the aircraft goes above TKOFF_TDRAG_SPD1 airspeed, changes mode, or the pitch goes above the initial pitch when this is engaged or goes below 0 pitch. When enabled the elevator will be forced to TKOFF_TDRAG_ELEV. This option allows for easier takeoffs on taildraggers in FBWA mode, and also makes it easier to test auto-takeoff steering handling in FBWA. Setting it to 0 disables this option.

Level flight roll limit (ArduPlane:LEVEL_ROLL_LIMIT)

This controls the maximum bank angle in degrees during flight modes where level flight is desired, such as in the final stages of landing, and during auto takeoff. This should be a small angle (such as 5 degrees) to prevent a wing hitting the runway during takeoff or landing. Setting this to zero will completely disable heading hold on auto takeoff and final landing approach.

  • Range: 0 45
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: degrees

Landing Pitch (ArduPlane:LAND_PITCH_CD)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Used in autoland to give the minimum pitch in the final stage of landing (after the flare). This parameter can be used to ensure that the final landing attitude is appropriate for the type of undercarriage on the aircraft. Note that it is a minimum pitch only – the landing code will control pitch above this value to try to achieve the configured landing sink rate.

  • Units: centi-Degrees

Landing flare altitude (ArduPlane:LAND_FLARE_ALT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Altitude in autoland at which to lock heading and flare to the LAND_PITCH_CD pitch. Note that this option is secondary to LAND_FLARE_SEC. For a good landing it preferable that the flare is triggered by LAND_FLARE_SEC.

  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: meters

Landing flare time (ArduPlane:LAND_FLARE_SEC)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Vertical time before landing point at which to lock heading and flare with the motor stopped. This is vertical time, and is calculated based solely on the current height above the ground and the current descent rate. Set to 0 if you only wish to flare based on altitude (see LAND_FLARE_ALT).

  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: seconds

Landing pre-flare altitude (ArduPlane:LAND_PF_ALT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Altitude to trigger pre-flare flight stage where LAND_PF_ARSPD controls airspeed. The pre-flare flight stage trigger works just like LAND_FLARE_ALT but higher. Disabled when LAND_PF_ARSPD is 0.

  • Range: 0 30
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: meters

Landing pre-flare time (ArduPlane:LAND_PF_SEC)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Vertical time to ground to trigger pre-flare flight stage where LAND_PF_ARSPD controls airspeed. This pre-flare flight stage trigger works just like LAND_FLARE_SEC but earlier. Disabled when LAND_PF_ARSPD is 0.

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: seconds

Landing pre-flare airspeed (ArduPlane:LAND_PF_ARSPD)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Desired airspeed during pre-flare flight stage. This is useful to reduce airspeed just before the flare. Use 0 to disable.

  • Range: 0 30
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: m/s

Bitmask for when to allow negative reverse thrust (ArduPlane:USE_REV_THRUST)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Typically THR_MIN will be clipped to zero unless reverse thrust is available. Since you may not want negative thrust available at all times this bitmask allows THR_MIN to go below 0 while executing certain auto-mission commands.

  • Bitmask: 0:AUTO_ALWAYS,1:AUTO_LAND,2:AUTO_LOITER_TO_ALT,3:AUTO_LOITER_ALL,4:AUTO_WAYPOINTS,5:LOITER,6:RTL,7:CIRCLE,8:CRUISE,9:FBWB,10:GUIDED
  • Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 AlwaysAllowedInAuto
    2 Auto_LandApproach
    4 Auto_LoiterToAlt
    8 Auto_Loiter
    16 Auto_Waypoint
    32 Loiter
    64 RTL
    128 Circle
    256 Cruise
    512 FBWB
    1024 Guided

Landing disarm delay (ArduPlane:LAND_DISARMDELAY)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

After a landing has completed using a LAND waypoint, automatically disarm after this many seconds have passed. Use 0 to not disarm.

  • Range: 0 127
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: seconds

Landing abort using throttle (ArduPlane:LAND_ABORT_THR)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Allow a landing abort to trigger with a throttle > 95%

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Navigation controller selection (ArduPlane:NAV_CONTROLLER)

Which navigation controller to enable. Currently the only navigation controller available is L1. From time to time other experimental controllers will be added which are selected using this parameter.

    Value Meaning
    0 Default
    1 L1Controller

GPS to Baro Mix (ArduPlane:ALT_MIX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The percent of mixing between GPS altitude and baro altitude. 0 = 100% gps, 1 = 100% baro. It is highly recommend that you not change this from the default of 1, as GPS altitude is notoriously unreliable. The only time I would recommend changing this is if you have a high altitude enabled GPS, and you are dropping a plane from a high altitude balloon many kilometers off the ground.

  • Range: 0 1
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: Percent

Altitude control algorithm (ArduPlane:ALT_CTRL_ALG)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets what algorithm will be used for altitude control. The default is zero, which selects the most appropriate algorithm for your airframe. Currently the default is to use TECS (total energy control system). From time to time we will add other experimental altitude control algorithms which will be selected using this parameter.

    Value Meaning
    0 Automatic

Altitude offset (ArduPlane:ALT_OFFSET)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is added to the target altitude in automatic flight. It can be used to add a global altitude offset to a mission

  • Range: -32767 32767
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Meters

Waypoint Radius (ArduPlane:WP_RADIUS)

Defines the maximum distance from a waypoint that when crossed indicates the waypoint may be complete. To avoid the aircraft looping around the waypoint in case it misses by more than the WP_RADIUS an additional check is made to see if the aircraft has crossed a “finish line” passing through the waypoint and perpendicular to the flight path from the previous waypoint. If that finish line is crossed then the waypoint is considered complete. Note that the navigation controller may decide to turn later than WP_RADIUS before a waypoint, based on how sharp the turn is and the speed of the aircraft. It is safe to set WP_RADIUS much larger than the usual turn radius of your aircraft and the navigation controller will work out when to turn. If you set WP_RADIUS too small then you will tend to overshoot the turns.

  • Range: 1 32767
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Meters

Waypoint Maximum Radius (ArduPlane:WP_MAX_RADIUS)

Sets the maximum distance to a waypoint for the waypoint to be considered complete. This overrides the “cross the finish line” logic that is normally used to consider a waypoint complete. For normal AUTO behaviour this parameter should be set to zero. Using a non-zero value is only recommended when it is critical that the aircraft does approach within the given radius, and should loop around until it has done so. This can cause the aircraft to loop forever if its turn radius is greater than the maximum radius set.

  • Range: 0 32767
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Meters

Waypoint Loiter Radius (ArduPlane:WP_LOITER_RAD)

Defines the distance from the waypoint center, the plane will maintain during a loiter. If you set this value to a negative number then the default loiter direction will be counter-clockwise instead of clockwise.

  • Range: -32767 32767
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Meters

RTL loiter radius (ArduPlane:RTL_RADIUS)

Defines the radius of the loiter circle when in RTL mode. If this is zero then WP_LOITER_RAD is used. If the radius is negative then a counter-clockwise is used. If positive then a clockwise loiter is used.

  • Range: -32767 32767
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Meters

Action on geofence breach (ArduPlane:FENCE_ACTION)

What to do on fence breach. If this is set to 0 then no action is taken, and geofencing is disabled. If this is set to 1 then the plane will enter GUIDED mode, with the target waypoint as the fence return point. If this is set to 2 then the fence breach is reported to the ground station, but no other action is taken. If set to 3 then the plane enters guided mode but the pilot retains manual throttle control.

    Value Meaning
    0 None
    1 GuidedMode
    2 ReportOnly
    3 GuidedModeThrPass

Fence Total (ArduPlane:FENCE_TOTAL)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Number of geofence points currently loaded

Fence Channel (ArduPlane:FENCE_CHANNEL)

RC Channel to use to enable geofence. PWM input above 1750 enables the geofence

Fence Minimum Altitude (ArduPlane:FENCE_MINALT)

Minimum altitude allowed before geofence triggers

  • Range: 0 32767
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: meters

Fence Maximum Altitude (ArduPlane:FENCE_MAXALT)

Maximum altitude allowed before geofence triggers

  • Range: 0 32767
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: meters

Fence Return Altitude (ArduPlane:FENCE_RETALT)

Altitude the aircraft will transit to when a fence breach occurs. If FENCE_RETALT is <= 0 then the midpoint between FENCE_MAXALT and FENCE_MINALT is used, unless FENCE_MAXALT < FENCE_MINALT. If FENCE_MAXALT < FENCE_MINALT AND FENCE_RETALT is <= 0 then ALT_HOLD_RTL is the altitude used on a fence breach.

  • Range: 0 32767
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: meters

Fence automatic enable (ArduPlane:FENCE_AUTOENABLE)

When set to 1, geofence automatically enables after an auto takeoff and automatically disables at the beginning of an auto landing. When on the ground before takeoff the fence is disabled. When set to 2, the fence autoenables after an auto takeoff, but only disables the fence floor during landing. It is highly recommended to not use this option for line of sight flying and use a fence enable channel instead.

    Value Meaning
    0 NoAutoEnable
    1 AutoEnable
    2 AutoEnableDisableFloorOnly

Fence Return to Rally (ArduPlane:FENCE_RET_RALLY)

When set to 1: on fence breach the plane will return to the nearest rally point rather than the fence return point. If no rally points have been defined the plane will return to the home point.

    Value Meaning
    0 FenceReturnPoint
    1 NearestRallyPoint

Enable stall prevention (ArduPlane:STALL_PREVENTION)

This controls the use of stall prevention techniques, including roll limits at low speed and raising the minimum airspeed in turns. The limits are based on the aerodynamic load factor of a banked turn. This option relies on the correct ARSPD_FBW_MIN value being set correctly. Note that if you don’t have an airspeed sensor then stall prevention will use an airspeed estimate based on the ground speed plus a wind estimate taken from the response of the autopilot banked turns. That synthetic airspeed estimate may be inaccurate, so you should not assume that stall prevention with no airspeed sensor will be effective.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Minimum Airspeed (ArduPlane:ARSPD_FBW_MIN)

This is the minimum airspeed you want to fly at in modes where the autopilot controls the airspeed. This should be set to a value around 20% higher than the level flight stall speed for the airframe. This value is also used in the STALL_PREVENTION code.

  • Range: 5 100
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: m/s

Maximum Airspeed (ArduPlane:ARSPD_FBW_MAX)

This is the maximum airspeed that you want to allow for your airframe in auto-throttle modes. You should ensure that this value is sufficiently above the ARSPD_FBW_MIN value to allow for a sufficient flight envelope to accurately control altitude using airspeed. A value at least 50% above ARSPD_FBW_MIN is recommended.

  • Range: 5 100
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: m/s

Fly By Wire elevator reverse (ArduPlane:FBWB_ELEV_REV)

Reverse sense of elevator in FBWB and CRUISE modes. When set to 0 up elevator (pulling back on the stick) means to lower altitude. When set to 1, up elevator means to raise altitude.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Use terrain following (ArduPlane:TERRAIN_FOLLOW)

This enables terrain following for CRUISE mode, FBWB mode, RTL and for rally points. To use this option you also need to set TERRAIN_ENABLE to 1, which enables terrain data fetching from the GCS, and you need to have a GCS that supports sending terrain data to the aircraft. When terrain following is enabled then CRUISE and FBWB mode will hold height above terrain rather than height above home. In RTL the return to launch altitude will be considered to be a height above the terrain. Rally point altitudes will be taken as height above the terrain. This option does not affect mission items, which have a per-waypoint flag for whether they are height above home or height above the terrain. To use terrain following missions you need a ground station which can set the waypoint type to be a terrain height waypoint when creating the mission.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Terrain lookahead (ArduPlane:TERRAIN_LOOKAHD)

This controls how far ahead the terrain following code looks to ensure it stays above upcoming terrain. A value of zero means no lookahead, so the controller will track only the terrain directly below the aircraft. The lookahead will never extend beyond the next waypoint when in AUTO mode.

  • Range: 0 10000
  • Units: meters

Fly By Wire B altitude change rate (ArduPlane:FBWB_CLIMB_RATE)

This sets the rate in m/s at which FBWB and CRUISE modes will change its target altitude for full elevator deflection. Note that the actual climb rate of the aircraft can be lower than this, depending on your airspeed and throttle control settings. If you have this parameter set to the default value of 2.0, then holding the elevator at maximum deflection for 10 seconds would change the target altitude by 20 meters.

  • Range: 1 10
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: m/s

Minimum Throttle (ArduPlane:THR_MIN)

The minimum throttle setting (as a percentage) which the autopilot will apply. For the final stage of an automatic landing this is always zero. If your ESC supports reverse, use a negative value to configure for reverse thrust.

  • Range: -100 100
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Percent

Maximum Throttle (ArduPlane:THR_MAX)

The maximum throttle setting (as a percentage) which the autopilot will apply.

  • Range: 0 100
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Percent

Maximum Throttle for takeoff (ArduPlane:TKOFF_THR_MAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The maximum throttle setting during automatic takeoff. If this is zero then THR_MAX is used for takeoff as well.

  • Range: 0 100
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Percent

Throttle slew rate (ArduPlane:THR_SLEWRATE)

maximum percentage change in throttle per second. A setting of 10 means to not change the throttle by more than 10% of the full throttle range in one second.

  • Range: 0 127
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Percent

Flap slew rate (ArduPlane:FLAP_SLEWRATE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

maximum percentage change in flap output per second. A setting of 25 means to not change the flap by more than 25% of the full flap range in one second. A value of 0 means no rate limiting.

  • Range: 0 100
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Percent

Throttle suppress manual passthru (ArduPlane:THR_SUPP_MAN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

When throttle is suppressed in auto mode it is normally forced to zero. If you enable this option, then while suppressed it will be manual throttle. This is useful on petrol engines to hold the idle throttle manually while waiting for takeoff

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Throttle passthru in stabilize (ArduPlane:THR_PASS_STAB)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

If this is set then when in STABILIZE, FBWA or ACRO modes the throttle is a direct passthru from the transmitter. This means the THR_MIN and THR_MAX settings are not used in these modes. This is useful for petrol engines where you setup a throttle cut switch that suppresses the throttle below the normal minimum.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Throttle Failsafe Enable (ArduPlane:THR_FAILSAFE)

The throttle failsafe allows you to configure a software failsafe activated by a setting on the throttle input channel

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Throttle Failsafe Value (ArduPlane:THR_FS_VALUE)

The PWM level on channel 3 below which throttle failsafe triggers

  • Range: 925 1100
  • Increment: 1

Throttle cruise percentage (ArduPlane:TRIM_THROTTLE)

The target percentage of throttle to apply for normal flight

  • Range: 0 100
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Percent

Throttle nudge enable (ArduPlane:THROTTLE_NUDGE)

When enabled, this uses the throttle input in auto-throttle modes to ‘nudge’ the throttle or airspeed to higher or lower values. When you have an airspeed sensor the nudge affects the target airspeed, so that throttle inputs above 50% will increase the target airspeed from TRIM_ARSPD_CM up to a maximum of ARSPD_FBW_MAX. When no airspeed sensor is enabled the throttle nudge will push up the target throttle for throttle inputs above 50%.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Short failsafe action (ArduPlane:FS_SHORT_ACTN)

The action to take on a short (FS_SHORT_TIMEOUT) failsafe event. A short failsafe even can be triggered either by loss of RC control (see THR_FS_VALUE) or by loss of GCS control (see FS_GCS_ENABL). If in CIRCLE or RTL mode this parameter is ignored. A short failsafe event in stabilization and manual modes will cause an change to CIRCLE mode if FS_SHORT_ACTN is 0 or 1, and a change to FBWA mode if FS_SHORT_ACTN is 2. In all other modes (AUTO, GUIDED and LOITER) a short failsafe event will cause no mode change is FS_SHORT_ACTN is set to 0, will cause a change to CIRCLE mode if set to 1 and will change to FBWA mode if set to 2. Please see the documentation for FS_LONG_ACTN for the behaviour after FS_LONG_TIMEOUT seconds of failsafe.

    Value Meaning
    0 CIRCLE/no change(if already in AUTO|GUIDED|LOITER)
    1 CIRCLE
    2 FBWA

Short failsafe timeout (ArduPlane:FS_SHORT_TIMEOUT)

The time in seconds that a failsafe condition has to persist before a short failsafe event will occur. This defaults to 1.5 seconds

  • Range: 1 100
  • Increment: 0.5
  • Units: seconds

Long failsafe action (ArduPlane:FS_LONG_ACTN)

The action to take on a long (FS_LONG_TIMEOUT seconds) failsafe event. If the aircraft was in a stabilization or manual mode when failsafe started and a long failsafe occurs then it will change to RTL mode if FS_LONG_ACTN is 0 or 1, and will change to FBWA if FS_LONG_ACTN is set to 2. If the aircraft was in an auto mode (such as AUTO or GUIDED) when the failsafe started then it will continue in the auto mode if FS_LONG_ACTN is set to 0, will change to RTL mode if FS_LONG_ACTN is set to 1 and will change to FBWA mode if FS_LONG_ACTN is set to 2. If FS_LONG_ACTION is set to 3, the parachute will be deployed (make sure the chute is configured and enabled).

    Value Meaning
    0 Continue
    1 ReturnToLaunch
    2 Glide
    3 Deploy Parachute

Long failsafe timeout (ArduPlane:FS_LONG_TIMEOUT)

The time in seconds that a failsafe condition has to persist before a long failsafe event will occur. This defaults to 5 seconds.

  • Range: 1 300
  • Increment: 0.5
  • Units: seconds

Failsafe battery voltage (ArduPlane:FS_BATT_VOLTAGE)

Battery voltage to trigger failsafe. Set to 0 to disable battery voltage failsafe. If the battery voltage drops below this voltage continuously for 10 seconds then the plane will switch to RTL mode.

  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: Volts

Failsafe battery milliAmpHours (ArduPlane:FS_BATT_MAH)

Battery capacity remaining to trigger failsafe. Set to 0 to disable battery remaining failsafe. If the battery remaining drops below this level then the plane will switch to RTL mode immediately.

  • Increment: 50
  • Units: mAh

GCS failsafe enable (ArduPlane:FS_GCS_ENABL)

Enable ground control station telemetry failsafe. Failsafe will trigger after FS_LONG_TIMEOUT seconds of no MAVLink heartbeat messages. There are two possible enabled settings. Seeing FS_GCS_ENABL to 1 means that GCS failsafe will be triggered when the aircraft has not received a MAVLink HEARTBEAT message. Setting FS_GCS_ENABL to 2 means that GCS failsafe will be triggered on either a loss of HEARTBEAT messages, or a RADIO_STATUS message from a MAVLink enabled 3DR radio indicating that the ground station is not receiving status updates from the aircraft, which is indicated by the RADIO_STATUS.remrssi field being zero (this may happen if you have a one way link due to asymmetric noise on the ground station and aircraft radios).Setting FS_GCS_ENABL to 3 means that GCS failsafe will be triggered by Heartbeat(like option one), but only in AUTO mode. WARNING: Enabling this option opens up the possibility of your plane going into failsafe mode and running the motor on the ground it it loses contact with your ground station. If this option is enabled on an electric plane then you should enable ARMING_REQUIRED.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Heartbeat
    2 HeartbeatAndREMRSSI
    3 HeartbeatAndAUTO

Flightmode channel (ArduPlane:FLTMODE_CH)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC Channel to use for flight mode control

FlightMode1 (ArduPlane:FLTMODE1)

Flight mode for switch position 1 (910 to 1230 and above 2049)

    Value Meaning
    0 Manual
    1 CIRCLE
    2 STABILIZE
    3 TRAINING
    4 ACRO
    5 FBWA
    6 FBWB
    7 CRUISE
    8 AUTOTUNE
    10 Auto
    11 RTL
    12 Loiter
    15 Guided

FlightMode2 (ArduPlane:FLTMODE2)

Flight mode for switch position 2 (1231 to 1360)

    Value Meaning
    0 Manual
    1 CIRCLE
    2 STABILIZE
    3 TRAINING
    4 ACRO
    5 FBWA
    6 FBWB
    7 CRUISE
    8 AUTOTUNE
    10 Auto
    11 RTL
    12 Loiter
    15 Guided

FlightMode3 (ArduPlane:FLTMODE3)

Flight mode for switch position 3 (1361 to 1490)

    Value Meaning
    0 Manual
    1 CIRCLE
    2 STABILIZE
    3 TRAINING
    4 ACRO
    5 FBWA
    6 FBWB
    7 CRUISE
    8 AUTOTUNE
    10 Auto
    11 RTL
    12 Loiter
    15 Guided

FlightMode4 (ArduPlane:FLTMODE4)

Flight mode for switch position 4 (1491 to 1620)

    Value Meaning
    0 Manual
    1 CIRCLE
    2 STABILIZE
    3 TRAINING
    4 ACRO
    5 FBWA
    6 FBWB
    7 CRUISE
    8 AUTOTUNE
    10 Auto
    11 RTL
    12 Loiter
    15 Guided

FlightMode5 (ArduPlane:FLTMODE5)

Flight mode for switch position 5 (1621 to 1749)

    Value Meaning
    0 Manual
    1 CIRCLE
    2 STABILIZE
    3 TRAINING
    4 ACRO
    5 FBWA
    6 FBWB
    7 CRUISE
    8 AUTOTUNE
    10 Auto
    11 RTL
    12 Loiter
    15 Guided

FlightMode6 (ArduPlane:FLTMODE6)

Flight mode for switch position 6 (1750 to 2049)

    Value Meaning
    0 Manual
    1 CIRCLE
    2 STABILIZE
    3 TRAINING
    4 ACRO
    5 FBWA
    6 FBWB
    7 CRUISE
    8 AUTOTUNE
    10 Auto
    11 RTL
    12 Loiter
    15 Guided

Initial flight mode (ArduPlane:INITIAL_MODE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This selects the mode to start in on boot. This is useful for when you want to start in AUTO mode on boot without a receiver.

    Value Meaning
    0 Manual
    1 CIRCLE
    2 STABILIZE
    3 TRAINING
    4 ACRO
    5 FBWA
    6 FBWB
    7 CRUISE
    8 AUTOTUNE
    10 Auto
    11 RTL
    12 Loiter
    15 Guided

Maximum Bank Angle (ArduPlane:LIM_ROLL_CD)

The maximum commanded bank angle in either direction

  • Range: 0 9000
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: centi-Degrees

Maximum Pitch Angle (ArduPlane:LIM_PITCH_MAX)

The maximum commanded pitch up angle

  • Range: 0 9000
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: centi-Degrees

Minimum Pitch Angle (ArduPlane:LIM_PITCH_MIN)

The minimum commanded pitch down angle

  • Range: -9000 0
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: centi-Degrees

ACRO mode roll rate (ArduPlane:ACRO_ROLL_RATE)

The maximum roll rate at full stick deflection in ACRO mode

  • Range: 10 500
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: degrees/second

ACRO mode pitch rate (ArduPlane:ACRO_PITCH_RATE)

The maximum pitch rate at full stick deflection in ACRO mode

  • Range: 10 500
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: degrees/second

ACRO mode attitude locking (ArduPlane:ACRO_LOCKING)

Enable attitude locking when sticks are released

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Ground steer altitude (ArduPlane:GROUND_STEER_ALT)

Altitude at which to use the ground steering controller on the rudder. If non-zero then the STEER2SRV controller will be used to control the rudder for altitudes within this limit of the home altitude.

  • Range: -100 100
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: Meters

Ground steer rate (ArduPlane:GROUND_STEER_DPS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Ground steering rate in degrees per second for full rudder stick deflection

  • Range: 10 360
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: degrees/second

Automatic trim adjustment (ArduPlane:TRIM_AUTO)

Set RC trim PWM levels to current levels when switching away from manual mode. When this option is enabled and you change from MANUAL to any other mode then the APM will take the current position of the control sticks as the trim values for aileron, elevator and rudder. It will use those to set RC1_TRIM, RC2_TRIM and RC4_TRIM. This option is disabled by default as if a pilot is not aware of this option and changes from MANUAL to another mode while control inputs are not centered then the trim could be changed to a dangerously bad value. You can enable this option to assist with trimming your plane, by enabling it before takeoff then switching briefly to MANUAL in flight, and seeing how the plane reacts. You can then switch back to FBWA, trim the surfaces then again test MANUAL mode. Each time you switch from MANUAL the APM will take your control inputs as the new trim. After you have good trim on your aircraft you can disable TRIM_AUTO for future flights.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Elevon mixing (ArduPlane:ELEVON_MIXING)

This enables an older form of elevon mixing which is now deprecated. Please see the ELEVON_OUTPUT option for setting up elevons. The ELEVON_MIXING option should be set to 0 for elevon planes except for backwards compatibility with older setups.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Elevon reverse (ArduPlane:ELEVON_REVERSE)

Reverse elevon mixing

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Elevon reverse (ArduPlane:ELEVON_CH1_REV)

Reverse elevon channel 1

    Value Meaning
    -1 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Elevon reverse (ArduPlane:ELEVON_CH2_REV)

Reverse elevon channel 2

    Value Meaning
    -1 Disabled
    1 Enabled

VTail output (ArduPlane:VTAIL_OUTPUT)

Enable VTail output in software. If enabled then the APM will provide software VTail mixing on the elevator and rudder channels. There are 4 different mixing modes available, which refer to the 4 ways the elevator can be mapped to the two VTail servos. Note that you must not use VTail output mixing with hardware pass-through of RC values, such as with channel 8 manual control on an APM1. So if you use an APM1 then set FLTMODE_CH to something other than 8 before you enable VTAIL_OUTPUT. Please also see the MIXING_GAIN parameter for the output gain of the mixer.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 UpUp
    2 UpDown
    3 DownUp
    4 DownDown

Elevon output (ArduPlane:ELEVON_OUTPUT)

Enable software elevon output mixer. If enabled then the APM will provide software elevon mixing on the aileron and elevator channels. There are 4 different mixing modes available, which refer to the 4 ways the elevator can be mapped to the two elevon servos. Note that you must not use elevon output mixing with hardware pass-through of RC values, such as with channel 8 manual control on an APM1. So if you use an APM1 then set FLTMODE_CH to something other than 8 before you enable ELEVON_OUTPUT. Please also see the MIXING_GAIN parameter for the output gain of the mixer.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 UpUp
    2 UpDown
    3 DownUp
    4 DownDown

Mixing Gain (ArduPlane:MIXING_GAIN)

The gain for the Vtail and elevon output mixers. The default is 0.5, which ensures that the mixer doesn’t saturate, allowing both input channels to go to extremes while retaining control over the output. Hardware mixers often have a 1.0 gain, which gives more servo throw, but can saturate. If you don’t have enough throw on your servos with VTAIL_OUTPUT or ELEVON_OUTPUT enabled then you can raise the gain using MIXING_GAIN. The mixer allows outputs in the range 900 to 2100 microseconds.

  • Range: 0.5 1.2

Rudder only aircraft (ArduPlane:RUDDER_ONLY)

Enable rudder only mode. The rudder will control attitude in attitude controlled modes (such as FBWA). You should setup your transmitter to send roll stick inputs to the RCMAP_YAW channel (normally channel 4). The rudder servo should be attached to the RCMAP_YAW channel as well. Note that automatic ground steering will be disabled for rudder only aircraft. You should also set KFF_RDDRMIX to 1.0. You will also need to setup the YAW2SRV_DAMP yaw damping appropriately for your aircraft. A value of 0.5 for YAW2SRV_DAMP is a good starting point.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Num Resets (ArduPlane:SYS_NUM_RESETS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Number of APM board resets

Log bitmask (ArduPlane:LOG_BITMASK)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Bitmap of what log types to enable in dataflash. This values is made up of the sum of each of the log types you want to be saved on dataflash. On a PX4 or Pixhawk the large storage size of a microSD card means it is usually best just to enable all log types by setting this to 65535. On APM2 the smaller 4 MByte dataflash means you need to be more selective in your logging or you may run out of log space while flying (in which case it will wrap and overwrite the start of the log). The individual bits are ATTITUDE_FAST=1, ATTITUDE_MEDIUM=2, GPS=4, PerformanceMonitoring=8, ControlTuning=16, NavigationTuning=32, Mode=64, IMU=128, Commands=256, Battery=512, Compass=1024, TECS=2048, Camera=4096, RCandServo=8192, Sonar=16384, Arming=32768, LogWhenDisarmed=65536, FullLogsArmedOnly=65535, FullLogsWhenDisarmed=131071

  • Bitmask: 0:ATTITUDE_FAST,1:ATTITUDE_MED,2:GPS,3:PM,4:CTUN,5:NTUN,6:MODE,7:IMU,8:CMD,9:CURRENT,10:COMPASS,11:TECS,12:CAMERA,13:RC,14:SONAR,15:ARM/DISARM,16:WHEN_DISARMED,19:IMU_RAW
  • Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    5190 APM2-Default
    65535 PX4/Pixhawk-Default

Reset Switch Channel (ArduPlane:RST_SWITCH_CH)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC channel to use to reset to last flight mode after geofence takeover.

Reset Mission Channel (ArduPlane:RST_MISSION_CH)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC channel to use to reset the mission to the first waypoint. When this channel goes above 1750 the mission is reset. Set RST_MISSION_CH to 0 to disable.

Target airspeed (ArduPlane:TRIM_ARSPD_CM)

Airspeed in cm/s to aim for when airspeed is enabled in auto mode. This is a calibrated (apparent) airspeed.

  • Units: cm/s

speed used for speed scaling calculations (ArduPlane:SCALING_SPEED)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Airspeed in m/s to use when calculating surface speed scaling. Note that changing this value will affect all PID values

  • Units: m/s

Minimum ground speed (ArduPlane:MIN_GNDSPD_CM)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Minimum ground speed in cm/s when under airspeed control

  • Units: cm/s

Pitch angle offset (ArduPlane:TRIM_PITCH_CD)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

offset to add to pitch – used for in-flight pitch trimming. It is recommended that instead of using this parameter you level your plane correctly on the ground for good flight attitude.

  • Units: centi-Degrees

RTL altitude (ArduPlane:ALT_HOLD_RTL)

Return to launch target altitude. This is the relative altitude the plane will aim for and loiter at when returning home. If this is negative (usually -1) then the plane will use the current altitude at the time of entering RTL. Note that when transiting to a Rally Point the altitude of the Rally Point is used instead of ALT_HOLD_RTL.

  • Units: centimeters

Minimum altitude for FBWB mode (ArduPlane:ALT_HOLD_FBWCM)

This is the minimum altitude in centimeters that FBWB and CRUISE modes will allow. If you attempt to descend below this altitude then the plane will level off. A value of zero means no limit.

  • Units: centimeters

Enable Compass (ArduPlane:MAG_ENABLE)

Setting this to Enabled(1) will enable the compass. Setting this to Disabled(0) will disable the compass. Note that this is separate from COMPASS_USE. This will enable the low level senor, and will enable logging of magnetometer data. To use the compass for navigation you must also set COMPASS_USE to 1.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Flap input channel (ArduPlane:FLAP_IN_CHANNEL)

An RC input channel to use for flaps control. If this is set to a RC channel number then that channel will be used for manual flaps control. When enabled, the percentage of flaps is taken as the percentage travel from the TRIM value of the channel to the MIN value of the channel. A value above the TRIM values will give inverse flaps (spoilers). This option needs to be enabled in conjunction with a FUNCTION setting on an output channel to one of the flap functions. When a FLAP_IN_CHANNEL is combined with auto-flaps the higher of the two flap percentages is taken. You must also enable a FLAPERON_OUTPUT flaperon mixer setting if using flaperons.

Flaperon output (ArduPlane:FLAPERON_OUTPUT)

Enable flaperon output in software. If enabled then the APM will provide software flaperon mixing on the FLAPERON1 and FLAPERON2 output channels specified using the FUNCTION on two auxiliary channels. There are 4 different mixing modes available, which refer to the 4 ways the flap and aileron outputs can be mapped to the two flaperon servos. Note that you must not use flaperon output mixing with hardware pass-through of RC values, such as with channel 8 manual control on an APM1. So if you use an APM1 then set FLTMODE_CH to something other than 8 before you enable FLAPERON_OUTPUT. Please also see the MIXING_GAIN parameter for the output gain of the mixer. FLAPERON_OUTPUT cannot be combined with ELEVON_OUTPUT or ELEVON_MIXING.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 UpUp
    2 UpDown
    3 DownUp
    4 DownDown

Flap 1 percentage (ArduPlane:FLAP_1_PERCNT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The percentage change in flap position when FLAP_1_SPEED is reached. Use zero to disable flaps

  • Range: 0 100
  • Units: Percent

Flap 1 speed (ArduPlane:FLAP_1_SPEED)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The speed in meters per second at which to engage FLAP_1_PERCENT of flaps. Note that FLAP_1_SPEED should be greater than or equal to FLAP_2_SPEED

  • Range: 0 100
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: m/s

Flap 2 percentage (ArduPlane:FLAP_2_PERCNT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The percentage change in flap position when FLAP_2_SPEED is reached. Use zero to disable flaps

  • Range: 0 100
  • Units: Percent

Flap 2 speed (ArduPlane:FLAP_2_SPEED)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The speed in meters per second at which to engage FLAP_2_PERCENT of flaps. Note that FLAP_1_SPEED should be greater than or equal to FLAP_2_SPEED

  • Range: 0 100
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: m/s

Landing flap percentage (ArduPlane:LAND_FLAP_PERCNT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The amount of flaps (as a percentage) to apply in the landing approach and flare of an automatic landing

  • Range: 0 100
  • Units: Percent

PX4IO override channel (ArduPlane:OVERRIDE_CHAN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

If set to a non-zero value then this is an RC input channel number to use for giving PX4IO manual control in case the main FMU microcontroller on a PX4 or Pixhawk fails. When this RC input channel goes above 1750 the FMU microcontroller will no longer be involved in controlling the servos and instead the PX4IO microcontroller will directly control the servos. Note that PX4IO manual control will be automatically activated if the FMU crashes for any reason. This parameter allows you to test for correct manual behaviour without actually crashing the FMU. This parameter is can be set to a non-zero value either for ground testing purposes or for giving the effect of an external override control board. Please also see the docs on OVERRIDE_SAFETY. Note that you may set OVERRIDE_CHAN to the same channel as FLTMODE_CH to get PX4IO based override when in flight mode 6. Note that when override is triggered due to a FMU crash the 6 auxiliary output channels on Pixhawk will no longer be updated, so all the flight controls you need must be assigned to the first 8 channels.

PX4IO override safety switch (ArduPlane:OVERRIDE_SAFETY)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls whether the safety switch is turned off when you activate override with OVERRIDE_CHAN. When set to 1 the safety switch is de-activated (activating the servos) then a PX4IO override is triggered. In that case the safety remains de-activated after override is disabled. If OVERRIDE_SAFETTY is set to 0 then the safety switch state does not change. Note that regardless of the value of this parameter the servos will be active while override is active.

Inverted flight channel (ArduPlane:INVERTEDFLT_CH)

A RC input channel number to enable inverted flight. If this is non-zero then the APM will monitor the corresponding RC input channel and will enable inverted flight when the channel goes above 1750.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Channel1
    2 Channel2
    3 Channel3
    4 Channel4
    5 Channel5
    6 Channel6
    7 Channel7
    8 Channel8

HIL mode enable (ArduPlane:HIL_MODE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This enables and disables hardware in the loop mode. If HIL_MODE is 1 then on the next reboot all sensors are replaced with HIL sensors which come from the GCS.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

HIL Servos enable (ArduPlane:HIL_SERVOS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls whether real servo controls are used in HIL mode. If you enable this then the APM will control the real servos in HIL mode. If disabled it will report servo values, but will not output to the real servos. Be careful that your motor and propeller are not connected if you enable this option.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Limit of error in HIL attitude before reset (ArduPlane:HIL_ERR_LIMIT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the maximum error in degrees on any axis before HIL will reset the DCM attitude to match the HIL_STATE attitude. This limit will prevent poor timing on HIL from causing a major attitude error. If the value is zero then no limit applies.

  • Range: 0 90
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: degrees

RTL auto land (ArduPlane:RTL_AUTOLAND)

Automatically begin landing sequence after arriving at RTL location. This requires the addition of a DO_LAND_START mission item, which acts as a marker for the start of a landing sequence. The closest landing sequence will be chosen to the current location.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disable
    1 Enable – go HOME then land
    2 Enable – go directly to landing sequence

RC Trims auto set at start. (ArduPlane:RC_TRIM_AT_START)

Automatically set roll/pitch trim from Tx at ground start. This makes the assumption that the RC transmitter has not been altered since trims were last captured.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disable
    1 Enable

Crash Deceleration Threshold (ArduPlane:CRASH_ACC_THRESH)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

X-Axis deceleration threshold to notify the crash detector that there was a possible impact which helps disarm the motor quickly after a crash. This value should be much higher than normal negative x-axis forces during normal flight, check flight log files to determine the average IMU.x values for your aircraft and motor type. Higher value means less sensative (triggers on higher impact). For electric planes that don’t vibrate much during fight a value of 25 is good (that’s about 2.5G). For petrol/nitro planes you’ll want a higher value. Set to 0 to disable the collision detector.

  • Values: 10 127
  • Units: m/s/s

Crash Detection (ArduPlane:CRASH_DETECT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Automatically detect a crash during AUTO flight and perform the bitmask selected action(s). Disarm will turn off motor for saftey and to help against burning out ESC and motor. Setting the mode to manual will help save the servos from burning out by overexerting if the aircraft crashed in an odd orientation such as upsidedown.

  • Bitmask: 0:Disarm
  • Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Disarm

Parachute release channel (ArduPlane:CHUTE_CHAN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

If set to a non-zero value then this is an RC input channel number to use for manually releasing the parachute. When this channel goes above 1700 the parachute will be released

Enable rangefinder for landing (ArduPlane:RNGFND_LANDING)

This enables the use of a rangefinder for automatic landing. The rangefinder will be used both on the landing approach and for final flare

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

SERIAL Parameters

Serial0 baud rate (SERIAL0_BAUD)

The baud rate used on the USB console. The APM2 can support all baudrates up to 115, and also can support 500. The PX4 can support rates of up to 1500. If you setup a rate you cannot support on APM2 and then can’t connect to your board you should load a firmware from a different vehicle type. That will reset all your parameters to defaults.

    Value Meaning
    1 1200
    2 2400
    4 4800
    9 9600
    19 19200
    38 38400
    57 57600
    111 111100
    115 115200
    500 500000
    921 921600
    1500 1500000

Telem1 protocol selection (SERIAL1_PROTOCOL)

Control what protocol to use on the Telem1 port. Note that the Frsky options require external converter hardware. See the wiki for details.

    Value Meaning
    1 GCS Mavlink
    3 Frsky D-PORT
    4 Frsky S-PORT
    5 GPS
    7 Alexmos Gimbal Serial
    8 SToRM32 Gimbal Serial
    9 Lidar

Telem1 Baud Rate (SERIAL1_BAUD)

The baud rate used on the Telem1 port. The APM2 can support all baudrates up to 115, and also can support 500. The PX4 can support rates of up to 1500. If you setup a rate you cannot support on APM2 and then can’t connect to your board you should load a firmware from a different vehicle type. That will reset all your parameters to defaults.

    Value Meaning
    1 1200
    2 2400
    4 4800
    9 9600
    19 19200
    38 38400
    57 57600
    111 111100
    115 115200
    500 500000
    921 921600
    1500 1500000

Telemetry 2 protocol selection (SERIAL2_PROTOCOL)

Control what protocol to use on the Telem2 port. Note that the Frsky options require external converter hardware. See the wiki for details.

    Value Meaning
    1 GCS Mavlink
    3 Frsky D-PORT
    4 Frsky S-PORT
    5 GPS
    7 Alexmos Gimbal Serial
    8 SToRM32 Gimbal Serial
    9 Lidar

Telemetry 2 Baud Rate (SERIAL2_BAUD)

The baud rate of the Telem2 port. The APM2 can support all baudrates up to 115, and also can support 500. The PX4 can support rates of up to 1500. If you setup a rate you cannot support on APM2 and then can’t connect to your board you should load a firmware from a different vehicle type. That will reset all your parameters to defaults.

    Value Meaning
    1 1200
    2 2400
    4 4800
    9 9600
    19 19200
    38 38400
    57 57600
    111 111100
    115 115200
    500 500000
    921 921600
    1500 1500000

Serial 3 (GPS) protocol selection (SERIAL3_PROTOCOL)

Control what protocol Serial 3 (GPS) should be used for. Note that the Frsky options require external converter hardware. See the wiki for details.

    Value Meaning
    1 GCS Mavlink
    3 Frsky D-PORT
    4 Frsky S-PORT
    5 GPS
    7 Alexmos Gimbal Serial
    8 SToRM32 Gimbal Serial
    9 Lidar

Serial 3 (GPS) Baud Rate (SERIAL3_BAUD)

The baud rate used for the Serial 3 (GPS). The APM2 can support all baudrates up to 115, and also can support 500. The PX4 can support rates of up to 1500. If you setup a rate you cannot support on APM2 and then can’t connect to your board you should load a firmware from a different vehicle type. That will reset all your parameters to defaults.

    Value Meaning
    1 1200
    2 2400
    4 4800
    9 9600
    19 19200
    38 38400
    57 57600
    111 111100
    115 115200
    500 500000
    921 921600
    1500 1500000

Serial4 protocol selection (SERIAL4_PROTOCOL)

Control what protocol Serial4 port should be used for. Note that the Frsky options require external converter hardware. See the wiki for details.

    Value Meaning
    1 GCS Mavlink
    3 Frsky D-PORT
    4 Frsky S-PORT
    5 GPS
    7 Alexmos Gimbal Serial
    8 SToRM32 Gimbal Serial
    9 Lidar

Serial 4 Baud Rate (SERIAL4_BAUD)

The baud rate used for Serial4. The APM2 can support all baudrates up to 115, and also can support 500. The PX4 can support rates of up to 1500. If you setup a rate you cannot support on APM2 and then can’t connect to your board you should load a firmware from a different vehicle type. That will reset all your parameters to defaults.

    Value Meaning
    1 1200
    2 2400
    4 4800
    9 9600
    19 19200
    38 38400
    57 57600
    111 111100
    115 115200
    500 500000
    921 921600
    1500 1500000

GND_ Parameters

Absolute Pressure (GND_ABS_PRESS)

calibrated ground pressure in Pascals

  • Units: pascals
  • Increment: 1

ground temperature (GND_TEMP)

calibrated ground temperature in degrees Celsius

  • Units: degrees celsius
  • Increment: 1

altitude offset (GND_ALT_OFFSET)

altitude offset in meters added to barometric altitude. This is used to allow for automatic adjustment of the base barometric altitude by a ground station equipped with a barometer. The value is added to the barometric altitude read by the aircraft. It is automatically reset to 0 when the barometer is calibrated on each reboot or when a preflight calibration is performed.

  • Units: meters
  • Increment: 0.1

Primary barometer (GND_PRIMARY)

This selects which barometer will be the primary if multiple barometers are found

    Value Meaning
    0 FirstBaro
    1 2ndBaro
    2 3rdBaro

GPS_ Parameters

GPS type (GPS_TYPE)

GPS type

    Value Meaning
    0 None
    1 AUTO
    2 uBlox
    3 MTK
    4 MTK19
    5 NMEA
    6 SiRF
    7 HIL
    8 SwiftNav
    9 PX4-UAVCAN
    10 SBF
    11 GSOF
  • RebootRequired: True

2nd GPS type (GPS_TYPE2)

GPS type of 2nd GPS

    Value Meaning
    0 None
    1 AUTO
    2 uBlox
    3 MTK
    4 MTK19
    5 NMEA
    6 SiRF
    7 HIL
    8 SwiftNav
    9 PX4-UAVCAN
    10 SBF
    11 GSOF
  • RebootRequired: True

Navigation filter setting (GPS_NAVFILTER)

Navigation filter engine setting

    Value Meaning
    0 Portable
    2 Stationary
    3 Pedestrian
    4 Automotive
    5 Sea
    6 Airborne1G
    7 Airborne2G
    8 Airborne4G
  • RebootRequired: True

Automatic Switchover Setting (GPS_AUTO_SWITCH)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Automatic switchover to GPS reporting best lock

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Minimum Lock Type Accepted for DGPS (GPS_MIN_DGPS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Sets the minimum type of differential GPS corrections required before allowing to switch into DGPS mode.

    Value Meaning
    0 Any
    50 FloatRTK
    100 IntegerRTK
  • RebootRequired: True

SBAS Mode (GPS_SBAS_MODE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the SBAS (satellite based augmentation system) mode if available on this GPS. If set to 2 then the SBAS mode is not changed in the GPS. Otherwise the GPS will be reconfigured to enable/disable SBAS. Disabling SBAS may be worthwhile in some parts of the world where an SBAS signal is available but the baseline is too long to be useful.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled
    2 NoChange
  • RebootRequired: True

Minimum elevation (GPS_MIN_ELEV)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the minimum elevation of satellites above the horizon for them to be used for navigation. Setting this to -100 leaves the minimum elevation set to the GPS modules default.

  • Range: -100 90
  • Units: Degrees
  • RebootRequired: True

Destination for GPS_INJECT_DATA MAVLink packets (GPS_INJECT_TO)

The GGS can send raw serial packets to inject data to multiple GPSes.

    Value Meaning
    0 send to first GPS
    1 send to 2nd GPS
    127 send to all

Swift Binary Protocol Logging Mask (GPS_SBP_LOGMASK)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Masked with the SBP msg_type field to determine whether SBR1/SBR2 data is logged

    Value Meaning
    0x0000 None
    0xFFFF All
    0xFF00 External only

Raw data logging (GPS_RAW_DATA)

Enable logging of RXM raw data from uBlox which includes carrier phase and pseudo range information. This allows for post processing of dataflash logs for more precise positioning. Note that this requires a raw capable uBlox such as the 6P or 6T.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 log every sample
    5 log every 5 samples
  • RebootRequired: True

GNSS system configuration (GPS_GNSS_MODE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Bitmask for what GNSS system to use (all unchecked or zero to leave GPS as configured)

  • Bitmask: 0:GPS,1:SBAS,2:Galileo,3:Beidou,4:IMES,5:QZSS,6:GLOSNASS
  • Value Meaning
    0 Leave as currently configured
    1 GPS-NoSBAS
    3 GPS+SBAS
    4 Galileo-NoSBAS
    6 Galileo+SBAS
    8 Beidou
    51 GPS+IMES+QZSS+SBAS (Japan Only)
    64 GLONASS
    66 GLONASS+SBAS
    67 GPS+GLONASS+SBAS
  • RebootRequired: True

Save GPS configuration (GPS_SAVE_CFG)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Determines whether the configuration for this GPS should be written to non-volatile memory on the GPS. Currently working for UBlox.

    Value Meaning
    0 Do not save config
    1 Save config

CAM_ Parameters

Camera shutter (trigger) type (CAM_TRIGG_TYPE)

how to trigger the camera to take a picture

    Value Meaning
    0 Servo
    1 Relay

Duration that shutter is held open (CAM_DURATION)

How long the shutter will be held open in 10ths of a second (i.e. enter 10 for 1second, 50 for 5seconds)

  • Range: 0 50
  • Units: seconds

Servo ON PWM value (CAM_SERVO_ON)

PWM value to move servo to when shutter is activated

  • Range: 1000 2000
  • Units: pwm

Servo OFF PWM value (CAM_SERVO_OFF)

PWM value to move servo to when shutter is deactivated

  • Range: 1000 2000
  • Units: pwm

Camera trigger distance (CAM_TRIGG_DIST)

Distance in meters between camera triggers. If this value is non-zero then the camera will trigger whenever the GPS position changes by this number of meters regardless of what mode the APM is in. Note that this parameter can also be set in an auto mission using the DO_SET_CAM_TRIGG_DIST command, allowing you to enable/disable the triggering of the camera during the flight.

  • Range: 0 1000
  • Units: meters

Relay ON value (CAM_RELAY_ON)

This sets whether the relay goes high or low when it triggers. Note that you should also set RELAY_DEFAULT appropriately for your camera

    Value Meaning
    0 Low
    1 High

Minimum time between photos (CAM_MIN_INTERVAL)

Postpone shooting if previous picture was taken less than preset time(ms) ago.

  • Range: 0 10000
  • Units: milliseconds

Maximum photo roll angle. (CAM_MAX_ROLL)

Postpone shooting if roll is greater than limit. (0=Disable, will shoot regardless of roll).

  • Range: 0 180
  • Units: Degrees

Camera feedback pin (CAM_FEEDBACK_PIN)

pin number to use for save accurate camera feedback messages. If set to -1 then don’t use a pin flag for this, otherwise this is a pin number which if held high after a picture trigger order, will save camera messages when camera really takes a picture. A universal camera hot shoe is needed. The pin should be held high for at least 2 milliseconds for reliable trigger detection. See also the CAM_FEEDBACK_POL option

    Value Meaning
    -1 Disabled
    0-8 APM FeedbackPin
    50-55 PixHawk FeedbackPin

Camera feedback pin polarity (CAM_FEEDBACK_POL)

Polarity for feedback pin. If this is 1 then the feedback pin should go high on trigger. If set to 0 then it should go low

    Value Meaning
    0 TriggerLow
    1 TriggerHigh

ARMING_ Parameters

Rudder Arming (ARMING_RUDDER)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Control arm/disarm by rudder input. When enabled arming is done with right rudder, disarming with left rudder. Rudder arming only works in manual throttle modes with throttle at zero +- deadzone (RCx_DZ)

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 ArmingOnly
    2 ArmOrDisarm

Require Arming Motors (ARMING_REQUIRE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Arming disabled until some requirements are met. If 0, there are no requirements (arm immediately). If 1, require rudder stick or GCS arming before arming motors and send THR_MIN PWM to throttle channel when disarmed. If 2, require rudder stick or GCS arming and send 0 PWM to throttle channel when disarmed. See the ARMING_CHECK_* parameters to see what checks are done before arming. Note, if setting this parameter to 0 a reboot is required to arm the plane. Also note, even with this parameter at 0, if ARMING_CHECK parameter is not also zero the plane may fail to arm throttle at boot due to a pre-arm check failure.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 THR_MIN PWM when disarmed
    2 0 PWM when disarmed

Arm Checks to Peform (bitmask) (ARMING_CHECK)

Checks prior to arming motor. This is a bitmask of checks that will be performed befor allowing arming. The default is no checks, allowing arming at any time. You can select whatever checks you prefer by adding together the values of each check type to set this parameter. For example, to only allow arming when you have GPS lock and no RC failsafe you would set ARMING_CHECK to 72. For most users it is recommended that you set this to 1 to enable all checks.

  • Bitmask: 0:All,1:Barometer,2:Compass,3:GPS,4:INS,5:Parameters,6:RC,7:Board voltage,8:Battery Level,9:Airspeed,10:Logging Available,11:Hardware safety switch
  • Value Meaning
    0 None
    1 All
    2 Barometer
    4 Compass
    8 GPS
    16 INS(INertial Sensors – accels & gyros)
    32 Parameters(unused)
    64 RC Failsafe
    128 Board voltage
    256 Battery Level
    512 Airspeed
    1024 LoggingAvailable
    2048 Hardware safety switch

Accelerometer error threshold (ARMING_ACCTHRESH)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer error threshold used to determine inconsistent accelerometers. Compares this error range to other accelerometers to detect a hardware or calibration error. Lower value means tighter check and harder to pass arming check. Not all accelerometers are created equal.

  • Range: 0.25 3.0
  • Units: m/s/s

RELAY_ Parameters

First Relay Pin (RELAY_PIN)

Digital pin number for first relay control. This is the pin used for camera control.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Disabled
    13 APM2 A9 pin
    47 APM1 relay
    50 Pixhawk AUXOUT1
    51 Pixhawk AUXOUT2
    52 Pixhawk AUXOUT3
    53 Pixhawk AUXOUT4
    54 Pixhawk AUXOUT5
    55 Pixhawk AUXOUT6
    111 PX4 FMU Relay1
    112 PX4 FMU Relay2
    113 PX4IO Relay1
    114 PX4IO Relay2
    115 PX4IO ACC1
    116 PX4IO ACC2

Second Relay Pin (RELAY_PIN2)

Digital pin number for 2nd relay control.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Disabled
    13 APM2 A9 pin
    47 APM1 relay
    50 Pixhawk AUXOUT1
    51 Pixhawk AUXOUT2
    52 Pixhawk AUXOUT3
    53 Pixhawk AUXOUT4
    54 Pixhawk AUXOUT5
    55 Pixhawk AUXOUT6
    111 PX4 FMU Relay1
    112 PX4 FMU Relay2
    113 PX4IO Relay1
    114 PX4IO Relay2
    115 PX4IO ACC1
    116 PX4IO ACC2

Third Relay Pin (RELAY_PIN3)

Digital pin number for 3rd relay control.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Disabled
    13 APM2 A9 pin
    47 APM1 relay
    50 Pixhawk AUXOUT1
    51 Pixhawk AUXOUT2
    52 Pixhawk AUXOUT3
    53 Pixhawk AUXOUT4
    54 Pixhawk AUXOUT5
    55 Pixhawk AUXOUT6
    111 PX4 FMU Relay1
    112 PX4 FMU Relay2
    113 PX4IO Relay1
    114 PX4IO Relay2
    115 PX4IO ACC1
    116 PX4IO ACC2

Fourth Relay Pin (RELAY_PIN4)

Digital pin number for 4th relay control.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Disabled
    13 APM2 A9 pin
    47 APM1 relay
    50 Pixhawk AUXOUT1
    51 Pixhawk AUXOUT2
    52 Pixhawk AUXOUT3
    53 Pixhawk AUXOUT4
    54 Pixhawk AUXOUT5
    55 Pixhawk AUXOUT6
    111 PX4 FMU Relay1
    112 PX4 FMU Relay2
    113 PX4IO Relay1
    114 PX4IO Relay2
    115 PX4IO ACC1
    116 PX4IO ACC2

Default relay state (RELAY_DEFAULT)

The state of the relay on boot.

    Value Meaning
    0 Off
    1 On
    2 NoChange

CHUTE_ Parameters

Parachute release enabled or disabled (CHUTE_ENABLED)

Parachute release enabled or disabled

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Parachute release mechanism type (relay or servo) (CHUTE_TYPE)

Parachute release mechanism type (relay or servo)

    Value Meaning
    0 First Relay
    1 Second Relay
    2 Third Relay
    3 Fourth Relay
    10 Servo

Parachute Servo ON PWM value (CHUTE_SERVO_ON)

Parachute Servo PWM value when parachute is released

  • Range: 1000 2000
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

Servo OFF PWM value (CHUTE_SERVO_OFF)

Parachute Servo PWM value when parachute is not released

  • Range: 1000 2000
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

Parachute min altitude in meters above home (CHUTE_ALT_MIN)

Parachute min altitude above home. Parachute will not be released below this altitude. 0 to disable alt check.

  • Range: 0 32000
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Meters

RNGFND Parameters

Rangefinder type (RNGFND_TYPE)

What type of rangefinder device that is connected

    Value Meaning
    0 None
    1 Analog
    2 APM2-MaxbotixI2C
    3 APM2-PulsedLightI2C
    4 PX4-I2C
    5 PX4-PWM
    6 BBB-PRU
    7 LightWareI2C
    8 LightWareSerial

Rangefinder pin (RNGFND_PIN)

Analog pin that rangefinder is connected to. Set this to 0..9 for the APM2 analog pins. Set to 64 on an APM1 for the dedicated ‘airspeed’ port on the end of the board. Set to 11 on PX4 for the analog ‘airspeed’ port. Set to 15 on the Pixhawk for the analog ‘airspeed’ port.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Not Used
    0 APM2-A0
    1 APM2-A1
    2 APM2-A2
    3 APM2-A3
    4 APM2-A4
    5 APM2-A5
    6 APM2-A6
    7 APM2-A7
    8 APM2-A8
    9 APM2-A9
    11 PX4-airspeed port
    15 Pixhawk-airspeed port
    64 APM1-airspeed port

Rangefinder scaling (RNGFND_SCALING)

Scaling factor between rangefinder reading and distance. For the linear and inverted functions this is in meters per volt. For the hyperbolic function the units are meterVolts.

  • Increment: 0.001
  • Units: meters/Volt

rangefinder offset (RNGFND_OFFSET)

Offset in volts for zero distance for analog rangefinders. Offset added to distance in centimeters for PWM and I2C Lidars

  • Increment: 0.001
  • Units: Volts

Rangefinder function (RNGFND_FUNCTION)

Control over what function is used to calculate distance. For a linear function, the distance is (voltage-offset)*scaling. For a inverted function the distance is (offset-voltage)*scaling. For a hyperbolic function the distance is scaling/(voltage-offset). The functions return the distance in meters.

    Value Meaning
    0 Linear
    1 Inverted
    2 Hyperbolic

Rangefinder minimum distance (RNGFND_MIN_CM)

Minimum distance in centimeters that rangefinder can reliably read

  • Increment: 1
  • Units: centimeters

Rangefinder maximum distance (RNGFND_MAX_CM)

Maximum distance in centimeters that rangefinder can reliably read

  • Increment: 1
  • Units: centimeters

Rangefinder stop pin (RNGFND_STOP_PIN)

Digital pin that enables/disables rangefinder measurement for an analog rangefinder. A value of -1 means no pin. If this is set, then the pin is set to 1 to enable the rangefinder and set to 0 to disable it. This can be used to ensure that multiple sonar rangefinders don’t interfere with each other.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Not Used
    50 Pixhawk AUXOUT1
    51 Pixhawk AUXOUT2
    52 Pixhawk AUXOUT3
    53 Pixhawk AUXOUT4
    54 Pixhawk AUXOUT5
    55 Pixhawk AUXOUT6
    111 PX4 FMU Relay1
    112 PX4 FMU Relay2
    113 PX4IO Relay1
    114 PX4IO Relay2
    115 PX4IO ACC1
    116 PX4IO ACC2

Rangefinder settle time (RNGFND_SETTLE)

The time in milliseconds that the rangefinder reading takes to settle. This is only used when a STOP_PIN is specified. It determines how long we have to wait for the rangefinder to give a reading after we set the STOP_PIN high. For a sonar rangefinder with a range of around 7m this would need to be around 50 milliseconds to allow for the sonar pulse to travel to the target and back again.

  • Increment: 1
  • Units: milliseconds

Ratiometric (RNGFND_RMETRIC)

This parameter sets whether an analog rangefinder is ratiometric. Most analog rangefinders are ratiometric, meaning that their output voltage is influenced by the supply voltage. Some analog rangefinders (such as the SF/02) have their own internal voltage regulators so they are not ratiometric.

    Value Meaning
    0 No
    1 Yes

Powersave range (RNGFND_PWRRNG)

This parameter sets the estimated terrain distance in meters above which the sensor will be put into a power saving mode (if available). A value of zero means power saving is not enabled

  • Range: 0 32767
  • Units: meters

Distance (in cm) from the range finder to the ground (RNGFND_GNDCLEAR)

This parameter sets the expected range measurement(in cm) that the range finder should return when the vehicle is on the ground.

  • Range: 0 127
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: centimeters

Second Rangefinder type (RNGFND2_TYPE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

What type of rangefinder device that is connected

    Value Meaning
    0 None
    1 Analog
    2 APM2-MaxbotixI2C
    3 APM2-PulsedLightI2C
    4 PX4-I2C
    5 PX4-PWM
    6 BBB-PRU
    7 LightWareI2C
    8 LightWareSerial

Rangefinder pin (RNGFND2_PIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Analog pin that rangefinder is connected to. Set this to 0..9 for the APM2 analog pins. Set to 64 on an APM1 for the dedicated ‘airspeed’ port on the end of the board. Set to 11 on PX4 for the analog ‘airspeed’ port. Set to 15 on the Pixhawk for the analog ‘airspeed’ port.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Not Used
    0 APM2-A0
    1 APM2-A1
    2 APM2-A2
    3 APM2-A3
    4 APM2-A4
    5 APM2-A5
    6 APM2-A6
    7 APM2-A7
    8 APM2-A8
    9 APM2-A9
    11 PX4-airspeed port
    15 Pixhawk-airspeed port
    64 APM1-airspeed port

Rangefinder scaling (RNGFND2_SCALING)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Scaling factor between rangefinder reading and distance. For the linear and inverted functions this is in meters per volt. For the hyperbolic function the units are meterVolts.

  • Increment: 0.001
  • Units: meters/Volt

rangefinder offset (RNGFND2_OFFSET)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Offset in volts for zero distance

  • Increment: 0.001
  • Units: Volts

Rangefinder function (RNGFND2_FUNCTION)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Control over what function is used to calculate distance. For a linear function, the distance is (voltage-offset)*scaling. For a inverted function the distance is (offset-voltage)*scaling. For a hyperbolic function the distance is scaling/(voltage-offset). The functions return the distance in meters.

    Value Meaning
    0 Linear
    1 Inverted
    2 Hyperbolic

Rangefinder minimum distance (RNGFND2_MIN_CM)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Minimum distance in centimeters that rangefinder can reliably read

  • Increment: 1
  • Units: centimeters

Rangefinder maximum distance (RNGFND2_MAX_CM)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Maximum distance in centimeters that rangefinder can reliably read

  • Increment: 1
  • Units: centimeters

Rangefinder stop pin (RNGFND2_STOP_PIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Digital pin that enables/disables rangefinder measurement for an analog rangefinder. A value of -1 means no pin. If this is set, then the pin is set to 1 to enable the rangefinder and set to 0 to disable it. This can be used to ensure that multiple sonar rangefinders don’t interfere with each other.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Not Used
    50 Pixhawk AUXOUT1
    51 Pixhawk AUXOUT2
    52 Pixhawk AUXOUT3
    53 Pixhawk AUXOUT4
    54 Pixhawk AUXOUT5
    55 Pixhawk AUXOUT6
    111 PX4 FMU Relay1
    112 PX4 FMU Relay2
    113 PX4IO Relay1
    114 PX4IO Relay2
    115 PX4IO ACC1
    116 PX4IO ACC2

Sonar settle time (RNGFND2_SETTLE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The time in milliseconds that the rangefinder reading takes to settle. This is only used when a STOP_PIN is specified. It determines how long we have to wait for the rangefinder to give a reading after we set the STOP_PIN high. For a sonar rangefinder with a range of around 7m this would need to be around 50 milliseconds to allow for the sonar pulse to travel to the target and back again.

  • Increment: 1
  • Units: milliseconds

Ratiometric (RNGFND2_RMETRIC)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets whether an analog rangefinder is ratiometric. Most analog rangefinders are ratiometric, meaning that their output voltage is influenced by the supply voltage. Some analog rangefinders (such as the SF/02) have their own internal voltage regulators so they are not ratiometric.

    Value Meaning
    0 No
    1 Yes

Distance (in cm) from the second range finder to the ground (RNGFND2_GNDCLEAR)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the expected range measurement(in cm) that the second range finder should return when the vehicle is on the ground.

  • Range: 0 127
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: centimeters

Bus address of sensor (RNGFND_ADDR)

This sets the bus address of the sensor, where applicable. Used for the LightWare I2C sensor to allow for multiple sensors on different addresses. A value of 0 disables the sensor.

  • Range: 0 127
  • Increment: 1

Bus address of 2nd rangefinder (RNGFND2_ADDR)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the bus address of the sensor, where applicable. Used for the LightWare I2C sensor to allow for multiple sensors on different addresses. A value of 0 disables the sensor.

  • Range: 0 127
  • Increment: 1

Second Rangefinder type (RNGFND3_TYPE)

What type of rangefinder device that is connected

    Value Meaning
    0 None
    1 Analog
    2 APM2-MaxbotixI2C
    3 APM2-PulsedLightI2C
    4 PX4-I2C
    5 PX4-PWM
    6 BBB-PRU
    7 LightWareI2C
    8 LightWareSerial

Rangefinder pin (RNGFND3_PIN)

Analog pin that rangefinder is connected to. Set this to 0..9 for the APM2 analog pins. Set to 64 on an APM1 for the dedicated ‘airspeed’ port on the end of the board. Set to 11 on PX4 for the analog ‘airspeed’ port. Set to 15 on the Pixhawk for the analog ‘airspeed’ port.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Not Used
    0 APM2-A0
    1 APM2-A1
    2 APM2-A2
    3 APM2-A3
    4 APM2-A4
    5 APM2-A5
    6 APM2-A6
    7 APM2-A7
    8 APM2-A8
    9 APM2-A9
    11 PX4-airspeed port
    15 Pixhawk-airspeed port
    64 APM1-airspeed port

Rangefinder scaling (RNGFND3_SCALING)

Scaling factor between rangefinder reading and distance. For the linear and inverted functions this is in meters per volt. For the hyperbolic function the units are meterVolts.

  • Units: meters/Volt
  • Increment: 0.001

rangefinder offset (RNGFND3_OFFSET)

Offset in volts for zero distance

  • Units: Volts
  • Increment: 0.001

Rangefinder function (RNGFND3_FUNCTION)

Control over what function is used to calculate distance. For a linear function, the distance is (voltage-offset)*scaling. For a inverted function the distance is (offset-voltage)*scaling. For a hyperbolic function the distance is scaling/(voltage-offset). The functions return the distance in meters.

    Value Meaning
    0 Linear
    1 Inverted
    2 Hyperbolic

Rangefinder minimum distance (RNGFND3_MIN_CM)

Minimum distance in centimeters that rangefinder can reliably read

  • Units: centimeters
  • Increment: 1

Rangefinder maximum distance (RNGFND3_MAX_CM)

Maximum distance in centimeters that rangefinder can reliably read

  • Units: centimeters
  • Increment: 1

Rangefinder stop pin (RNGFND3_STOP_PIN)

Digital pin that enables/disables rangefinder measurement for an analog rangefinder. A value of -1 means no pin. If this is set, then the pin is set to 1 to enable the rangefinder and set to 0 to disable it. This can be used to ensure that multiple sonar rangefinders don’t interfere with each other.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Not Used
    50 Pixhawk AUXOUT1
    51 Pixhawk AUXOUT2
    52 Pixhawk AUXOUT3
    53 Pixhawk AUXOUT4
    54 Pixhawk AUXOUT5
    55 Pixhawk AUXOUT6
    111 PX4 FMU Relay1
    112 PX4 FMU Relay2
    113 PX4IO Relay1
    114 PX4IO Relay2
    115 PX4IO ACC1
    116 PX4IO ACC2

Sonar settle time (RNGFND3_SETTLE)

The time in milliseconds that the rangefinder reading takes to settle. This is only used when a STOP_PIN is specified. It determines how long we have to wait for the rangefinder to give a reading after we set the STOP_PIN high. For a sonar rangefinder with a range of around 7m this would need to be around 50 milliseconds to allow for the sonar pulse to travel to the target and back again.

  • Units: milliseconds
  • Increment: 1

Ratiometric (RNGFND3_RMETRIC)

This parameter sets whether an analog rangefinder is ratiometric. Most analog rangefinders are ratiometric, meaning that their output voltage is influenced by the supply voltage. Some analog rangefinders (such as the SF/02) have their own internal voltage regulators so they are not ratiometric.

    Value Meaning
    0 No
    1 Yes

Distance (in cm) from the second range finder to the ground (RNGFND3_GNDCLEAR)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the expected range measurement(in cm) that the second range finder should return when the vehicle is on the ground.

  • Range: 0 127
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: centimeters

Bus address of 2nd rangefinder (RNGFND3_ADDR)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the bus address of the sensor, where applicable. Used for the LightWare I2C sensor to allow for multiple sensors on different addresses. A value of 0 disables the sensor.

  • Range: 0 127
  • Increment: 1

Second Rangefinder type (RNGFND4_TYPE)

What type of rangefinder device that is connected

    Value Meaning
    0 None
    1 Analog
    2 APM2-MaxbotixI2C
    3 APM2-PulsedLightI2C
    4 PX4-I2C
    5 PX4-PWM
    6 BBB-PRU
    7 LightWareI2C
    8 LightWareSerial

Rangefinder pin (RNGFND4_PIN)

Analog pin that rangefinder is connected to. Set this to 0..9 for the APM2 analog pins. Set to 64 on an APM1 for the dedicated ‘airspeed’ port on the end of the board. Set to 11 on PX4 for the analog ‘airspeed’ port. Set to 15 on the Pixhawk for the analog ‘airspeed’ port.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Not Used
    0 APM2-A0
    1 APM2-A1
    2 APM2-A2
    3 APM2-A3
    4 APM2-A4
    5 APM2-A5
    6 APM2-A6
    7 APM2-A7
    8 APM2-A8
    9 APM2-A9
    11 PX4-airspeed port
    15 Pixhawk-airspeed port
    64 APM1-airspeed port

Rangefinder scaling (RNGFND4_SCALING)

Scaling factor between rangefinder reading and distance. For the linear and inverted functions this is in meters per volt. For the hyperbolic function the units are meterVolts.

  • Units: meters/Volt
  • Increment: 0.001

rangefinder offset (RNGFND4_OFFSET)

Offset in volts for zero distance

  • Units: Volts
  • Increment: 0.001

Rangefinder function (RNGFND4_FUNCTION)

Control over what function is used to calculate distance. For a linear function, the distance is (voltage-offset)*scaling. For a inverted function the distance is (offset-voltage)*scaling. For a hyperbolic function the distance is scaling/(voltage-offset). The functions return the distance in meters.

    Value Meaning
    0 Linear
    1 Inverted
    2 Hyperbolic

Rangefinder minimum distance (RNGFND4_MIN_CM)

Minimum distance in centimeters that rangefinder can reliably read

  • Units: centimeters
  • Increment: 1

Rangefinder maximum distance (RNGFND4_MAX_CM)

Maximum distance in centimeters that rangefinder can reliably read

  • Units: centimeters
  • Increment: 1

Rangefinder stop pin (RNGFND4_STOP_PIN)

Digital pin that enables/disables rangefinder measurement for an analog rangefinder. A value of -1 means no pin. If this is set, then the pin is set to 1 to enable the rangefinder and set to 0 to disable it. This can be used to ensure that multiple sonar rangefinders don’t interfere with each other.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Not Used
    50 Pixhawk AUXOUT1
    51 Pixhawk AUXOUT2
    52 Pixhawk AUXOUT3
    53 Pixhawk AUXOUT4
    54 Pixhawk AUXOUT5
    55 Pixhawk AUXOUT6
    111 PX4 FMU Relay1
    112 PX4 FMU Relay2
    113 PX4IO Relay1
    114 PX4IO Relay2
    115 PX4IO ACC1
    116 PX4IO ACC2

Sonar settle time (RNGFND4_SETTLE)

The time in milliseconds that the rangefinder reading takes to settle. This is only used when a STOP_PIN is specified. It determines how long we have to wait for the rangefinder to give a reading after we set the STOP_PIN high. For a sonar rangefinder with a range of around 7m this would need to be around 50 milliseconds to allow for the sonar pulse to travel to the target and back again.

  • Units: milliseconds
  • Increment: 1

Ratiometric (RNGFND4_RMETRIC)

This parameter sets whether an analog rangefinder is ratiometric. Most analog rangefinders are ratiometric, meaning that their output voltage is influenced by the supply voltage. Some analog rangefinders (such as the SF/02) have their own internal voltage regulators so they are not ratiometric.

    Value Meaning
    0 No
    1 Yes

Distance (in cm) from the second range finder to the ground (RNGFND4_GNDCLEAR)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the expected range measurement(in cm) that the second range finder should return when the vehicle is on the ground.

  • Range: 0 127
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: centimeters

Bus address of 2nd rangefinder (RNGFND4_ADDR)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the bus address of the sensor, where applicable. Used for the LightWare I2C sensor to allow for multiple sensors on different addresses. A value of 0 disables the sensor.

  • Range: 0 127
  • Increment: 1

TERRAIN_ Parameters

Terrain data enable (TERRAIN_ENABLE)

enable terrain data. This enables the vehicle storing a database of terrain data on the SD card. The terrain data is requested from the ground station as needed, and stored for later use on the SD card. To be useful the ground station must support TERRAIN_REQUEST messages and have access to a terrain database, such as the SRTM database.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disable
    1 Enable

Terrain grid spacing (TERRAIN_SPACING)

Distance between terrain grid points in meters. This controls the horizontal resolution of the terrain data that is stored on te SD card and requested from the ground station. If your GCS is using the worldwide SRTM database then a resolution of 100 meters is appropriate. Some parts of the world may have higher resolution data available, such as 30 meter data available in the SRTM database in the USA. The grid spacing also controls how much data is kept in memory during flight. A larger grid spacing will allow for a larger amount of data in memory. A grid spacing of 100 meters results in the vehicle keeping 12 grid squares in memory with each grid square having a size of 2.7 kilometers by 3.2 kilometers. Any additional grid squares are stored on the SD once they are fetched from the GCS and will be demand loaded as needed.

  • Units: meters
  • Increment: 1

ADSB_ Parameters

Enable ADSB (ADSB_ENABLE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Enable ADS-B

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

ADSB based Collision Avoidance Behavior (ADSB_BEHAVIOR)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

ADSB based Collision Avoidance Behavior selector

    Value Meaning
    0 None
    1 Loiter
    2 LoiterAndDescend

Q_ Parameters

Enable QuadPlane (Q_ENABLE)

This enables QuadPlane functionality, assuming quad motors on outputs 5 to 8

    Value Meaning
    0 Disable
    1 Enable

Roll axis rate controller P gain (Q_RT_RLL_P)

Roll axis rate controller P gain. Converts the difference between desired roll rate and actual roll rate into a motor speed output

  • Range: 0.08 0.30
  • Increment: 0.005

Roll axis rate controller I gain (Q_RT_RLL_I)

Roll axis rate controller I gain. Corrects long-term difference in desired roll rate vs actual roll rate

  • Range: 0.01 0.5
  • Increment: 0.01

Roll axis rate controller I gain maximum (Q_RT_RLL_IMAX)

Roll axis rate controller I gain maximum. Constrains the maximum motor output that the I gain will output

  • Range: 0 4500
  • Increment: 10
  • Units: Percent*10

Roll axis rate controller D gain (Q_RT_RLL_D)

Roll axis rate controller D gain. Compensates for short-term change in desired roll rate vs actual roll rate

  • Range: 0.001 0.02
  • Increment: 0.001

Pitch axis rate controller P gain (Q_RT_PIT_P)

Pitch axis rate controller P gain. Converts the difference between desired pitch rate and actual pitch rate into a motor speed output

  • Range: 0.08 0.30
  • Increment: 0.005

Pitch axis rate controller I gain (Q_RT_PIT_I)

Pitch axis rate controller I gain. Corrects long-term difference in desired pitch rate vs actual pitch rate

  • Range: 0.01 0.5
  • Increment: 0.01

Pitch axis rate controller I gain maximum (Q_RT_PIT_IMAX)

Pitch axis rate controller I gain maximum. Constrains the maximum motor output that the I gain will output

  • Range: 0 4500
  • Increment: 10
  • Units: Percent*10

Pitch axis rate controller D gain (Q_RT_PIT_D)

Pitch axis rate controller D gain. Compensates for short-term change in desired pitch rate vs actual pitch rate

  • Range: 0.001 0.02
  • Increment: 0.001

Yaw axis rate controller P gain (Q_RT_YAW_P)

Yaw axis rate controller P gain. Converts the difference between desired yaw rate and actual yaw rate into a motor speed output

  • Range: 0.150 0.50
  • Increment: 0.005

Yaw axis rate controller I gain (Q_RT_YAW_I)

Yaw axis rate controller I gain. Corrects long-term difference in desired yaw rate vs actual yaw rate

  • Range: 0.010 0.05
  • Increment: 0.01

Yaw axis rate controller I gain maximum (Q_RT_YAW_IMAX)

Yaw axis rate controller I gain maximum. Constrains the maximum motor output that the I gain will output

  • Range: 0 4500
  • Increment: 10
  • Units: Percent*10

Yaw axis rate controller D gain (Q_RT_YAW_D)

Yaw axis rate controller D gain. Compensates for short-term change in desired yaw rate vs actual yaw rate

  • Range: 0.000 0.02
  • Increment: 0.001

Roll axis stabilize controller P gain (Q_STB_RLL_P)

Roll axis stabilize (i.e. angle) controller P gain. Converts the error between the desired roll angle and actual angle to a desired roll rate

  • Range: 3.000 12.000

Pitch axis stabilize controller P gain (Q_STB_PIT_P)

Pitch axis stabilize (i.e. angle) controller P gain. Converts the error between the desired pitch angle and actual angle to a desired pitch rate

  • Range: 3.000 12.000

Yaw axis stabilize controller P gain (Q_STB_YAW_P)

Yaw axis stabilize (i.e. angle) controller P gain. Converts the error between the desired yaw angle and actual angle to a desired yaw rate

  • Range: 3.000 6.000

Angle Max (Q_ANGLE_MAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Maximum lean angle in all flight modes

  • Range: 1000 8000
  • Units: Centi-degrees

Transition time (Q_TRANSITION_MS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Transition time in milliseconds after minimum airspeed is reached

  • Range: 0 30000
  • Units: milli-seconds

Position (vertical) controller P gain (Q_PZ_P)

Position (vertical) controller P gain. Converts the difference between the desired altitude and actual altitude into a climb or descent rate which is passed to the throttle rate controller

  • Range: 1.000 3.000

Position (horizonal) controller P gain (Q_PXY_P)

Loiter position controller P gain. Converts the distance (in the latitude direction) to the target location into a desired speed which is then passed to the loiter latitude rate controller

  • Range: 0.500 2.000

Velocity (horizontal) P gain (Q_VXY_P)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Velocity (horizontal) P gain. Converts the difference between desired velocity to a target acceleration

  • Range: 0.1 6.0
  • Increment: 0.1

Velocity (horizontal) I gain (Q_VXY_I)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Velocity (horizontal) I gain. Corrects long-term difference in desired velocity to a target acceleration

  • Range: 0.02 1.00
  • Increment: 0.01

Velocity (horizontal) integrator maximum (Q_VXY_IMAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Velocity (horizontal) integrator maximum. Constrains the target acceleration that the I gain will output

  • Range: 0 4500
  • Increment: 10
  • Units: cm/s/s

Velocity (vertical) P gain (Q_VZ_P)

Velocity (vertical) P gain. Converts the difference between desired vertical speed and actual speed into a desired acceleration that is passed to the throttle acceleration controller

  • Range: 1.000 8.000

Throttle acceleration controller P gain (Q_AZ_P)

Throttle acceleration controller P gain. Converts the difference between desired vertical acceleration and actual acceleration into a motor output

  • Range: 0.500 1.500

Throttle acceleration controller I gain (Q_AZ_I)

Throttle acceleration controller I gain. Corrects long-term difference in desired vertical acceleration and actual acceleration

  • Range: 0.000 3.000

Throttle acceleration controller I gain maximum (Q_AZ_IMAX)

Throttle acceleration controller I gain maximum. Constrains the maximum pwm that the I term will generate

  • Range: 0 1000
  • Units: Percent*10

Throttle acceleration controller D gain (Q_AZ_D)

Throttle acceleration controller D gain. Compensates for short-term change in desired vertical acceleration vs actual acceleration

  • Range: 0.000 0.400

Throttle acceleration filter (Q_AZ_FILT_HZ)

Filter applied to acceleration to reduce noise. Lower values reduce noise but add delay.

  • Range: 1.000 100.000
  • Units: Hz

Pilot maximum vertical speed (Q_VELZ_MAX)

The maximum vertical velocity the pilot may request in cm/s

  • Range: 50 500
  • Increment: 10
  • Units: Centimeters/Second

Pilot vertical acceleration (Q_ACCEL_Z)

The vertical acceleration used when pilot is controlling the altitude

  • Range: 50 500
  • Increment: 10
  • Units: cm/s/s

RC output speed in Hz (Q_RC_SPEED)

This is the PWM refresh rate in Hz for QuadPlane quad motors

  • Range: 50 500
  • Increment: 10
  • Units: Hz

Minimum PWM output (Q_THR_MIN_PWM)

This is the minimum PWM output for the quad motors

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Maximum PWM output (Q_THR_MAX_PWM)

This is the maximum PWM output for the quad motors

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Quadplane assistance speed (Q_ASSIST_SPEED)

This is the speed below which the quad motors will provide stability and lift assistance in fixed wing modes. Zero means no assistance except during transition

  • Range: 0 100
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: m/s

Maximum yaw rate (Q_YAW_RATE_MAX)

This is the maximum yaw rate in degrees/second

  • Range: 50 500
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: degrees/second

Land speed (Q_LAND_SPEED)

The descent speed for the final stage of landing in cm/s

  • Range: 30 200
  • Increment: 10
  • Units: cm/s

Land final altitude (Q_LAND_FINAL_ALT)

The altitude at which we should switch to Q_LAND_SPEED descent rate

  • Range: 0.5 50
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: m

Throttle Mid Position (Q_THR_MID)

The throttle output (0 ~ 1000) when throttle stick is in mid position. Used to scale the manual throttle so that the mid throttle stick position is close to the throttle required to hover

  • Range: 300 700
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Percent*10

Transition max pitch (Q_TRAN_PIT_MAX)

Maximum pitch during transition to auto fixed wing flight

  • Range: 0 30
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Degrees

Frame Class (Q_FRAME_CLASS)

Controls major frame class for multicopter component

    Value Meaning
    0 Quad
    1 Hexa
    2 Octa

Frame Type (+, X or V) (Q_FRAME_TYPE)

Controls motor mixing for multicopter component

    Value Meaning
    0 Plus
    1 X
    2 V
    3 H
    4 V-Tail
    5 A-Tail
    10 Y6B

RC1_ Parameters

RC min PWM (RC1_MIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC trim PWM (RC1_TRIM)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC max PWM (RC1_MAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC reverse (RC1_REV)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Reversed
    1 Normal

RC dead-zone (RC1_DZ)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

  • Range: 0 200
  • Units: pwm

RC2_ Parameters

RC min PWM (RC2_MIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC trim PWM (RC2_TRIM)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC max PWM (RC2_MAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC reverse (RC2_REV)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Reversed
    1 Normal

RC dead-zone (RC2_DZ)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

  • Range: 0 200
  • Units: pwm

RC3_ Parameters

RC min PWM (RC3_MIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC trim PWM (RC3_TRIM)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC max PWM (RC3_MAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC reverse (RC3_REV)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Reversed
    1 Normal

RC dead-zone (RC3_DZ)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

  • Range: 0 200
  • Units: pwm

RC4_ Parameters

RC min PWM (RC4_MIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC trim PWM (RC4_TRIM)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC max PWM (RC4_MAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC reverse (RC4_REV)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Reversed
    1 Normal

RC dead-zone (RC4_DZ)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

  • Range: 0 200
  • Units: pwm

RC5_ Parameters

RC min PWM (RC5_MIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC trim PWM (RC5_TRIM)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC max PWM (RC5_MAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC reverse (RC5_REV)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Reversed
    1 Normal

RC dead-zone (RC5_DZ)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

  • Range: 0 200
  • Units: pwm

Servo out function (RC5_FUNCTION)

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 RCPassThru
    2 Flap
    3 Flap_auto
    4 Aileron
    6 mount_pan
    7 mount_tilt
    8 mount_roll
    9 mount_open
    10 camera_trigger
    11 release
    12 mount2_pan
    13 mount2_tilt
    14 mount2_roll
    15 mount2_open
    16 DifferentialSpoiler1
    17 DifferentialSpoiler2
    18 AileronWithInput
    19 Elevator
    20 ElevatorWithInput
    21 Rudder
    24 Flaperon1
    25 Flaperon2
    26 GroundSteering
    27 Parachute
    28 EPM
    29 LandingGear
    30 EngineRunEnable
    31 HeliRSC
    32 HeliTailRSC

RC6_ Parameters

RC min PWM (RC6_MIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC trim PWM (RC6_TRIM)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC max PWM (RC6_MAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC reverse (RC6_REV)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Reversed
    1 Normal

RC dead-zone (RC6_DZ)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

  • Range: 0 200
  • Units: pwm

Servo out function (RC6_FUNCTION)

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 RCPassThru
    2 Flap
    3 Flap_auto
    4 Aileron
    6 mount_pan
    7 mount_tilt
    8 mount_roll
    9 mount_open
    10 camera_trigger
    11 release
    12 mount2_pan
    13 mount2_tilt
    14 mount2_roll
    15 mount2_open
    16 DifferentialSpoiler1
    17 DifferentialSpoiler2
    18 AileronWithInput
    19 Elevator
    20 ElevatorWithInput
    21 Rudder
    24 Flaperon1
    25 Flaperon2
    26 GroundSteering
    27 Parachute
    28 EPM
    29 LandingGear
    30 EngineRunEnable
    31 HeliRSC
    32 HeliTailRSC

RC7_ Parameters

RC min PWM (RC7_MIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC trim PWM (RC7_TRIM)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC max PWM (RC7_MAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC reverse (RC7_REV)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Reversed
    1 Normal

RC dead-zone (RC7_DZ)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

  • Range: 0 200
  • Units: pwm

Servo out function (RC7_FUNCTION)

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 RCPassThru
    2 Flap
    3 Flap_auto
    4 Aileron
    6 mount_pan
    7 mount_tilt
    8 mount_roll
    9 mount_open
    10 camera_trigger
    11 release
    12 mount2_pan
    13 mount2_tilt
    14 mount2_roll
    15 mount2_open
    16 DifferentialSpoiler1
    17 DifferentialSpoiler2
    18 AileronWithInput
    19 Elevator
    20 ElevatorWithInput
    21 Rudder
    24 Flaperon1
    25 Flaperon2
    26 GroundSteering
    27 Parachute
    28 EPM
    29 LandingGear
    30 EngineRunEnable
    31 HeliRSC
    32 HeliTailRSC

RC8_ Parameters

RC min PWM (RC8_MIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC trim PWM (RC8_TRIM)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC max PWM (RC8_MAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC reverse (RC8_REV)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Reversed
    1 Normal

RC dead-zone (RC8_DZ)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

  • Range: 0 200
  • Units: pwm

Servo out function (RC8_FUNCTION)

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 RCPassThru
    2 Flap
    3 Flap_auto
    4 Aileron
    6 mount_pan
    7 mount_tilt
    8 mount_roll
    9 mount_open
    10 camera_trigger
    11 release
    12 mount2_pan
    13 mount2_tilt
    14 mount2_roll
    15 mount2_open
    16 DifferentialSpoiler1
    17 DifferentialSpoiler2
    18 AileronWithInput
    19 Elevator
    20 ElevatorWithInput
    21 Rudder
    24 Flaperon1
    25 Flaperon2
    26 GroundSteering
    27 Parachute
    28 EPM
    29 LandingGear
    30 EngineRunEnable
    31 HeliRSC
    32 HeliTailRSC

RC9_ Parameters

RC min PWM (RC9_MIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC trim PWM (RC9_TRIM)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC max PWM (RC9_MAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC reverse (RC9_REV)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Reversed
    1 Normal

RC dead-zone (RC9_DZ)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

  • Range: 0 200
  • Units: pwm

Servo out function (RC9_FUNCTION)

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 RCPassThru
    2 Flap
    3 Flap_auto
    4 Aileron
    6 mount_pan
    7 mount_tilt
    8 mount_roll
    9 mount_open
    10 camera_trigger
    11 release
    12 mount2_pan
    13 mount2_tilt
    14 mount2_roll
    15 mount2_open
    16 DifferentialSpoiler1
    17 DifferentialSpoiler2
    18 AileronWithInput
    19 Elevator
    20 ElevatorWithInput
    21 Rudder
    24 Flaperon1
    25 Flaperon2
    26 GroundSteering
    27 Parachute
    28 EPM
    29 LandingGear
    30 EngineRunEnable
    31 HeliRSC
    32 HeliTailRSC

RC10_ Parameters

RC min PWM (RC10_MIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC trim PWM (RC10_TRIM)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC max PWM (RC10_MAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC reverse (RC10_REV)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Reversed
    1 Normal

RC dead-zone (RC10_DZ)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

  • Range: 0 200
  • Units: pwm

Servo out function (RC10_FUNCTION)

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 RCPassThru
    2 Flap
    3 Flap_auto
    4 Aileron
    6 mount_pan
    7 mount_tilt
    8 mount_roll
    9 mount_open
    10 camera_trigger
    11 release
    12 mount2_pan
    13 mount2_tilt
    14 mount2_roll
    15 mount2_open
    16 DifferentialSpoiler1
    17 DifferentialSpoiler2
    18 AileronWithInput
    19 Elevator
    20 ElevatorWithInput
    21 Rudder
    24 Flaperon1
    25 Flaperon2
    26 GroundSteering
    27 Parachute
    28 EPM
    29 LandingGear
    30 EngineRunEnable
    31 HeliRSC
    32 HeliTailRSC

RC11_ Parameters

RC min PWM (RC11_MIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC trim PWM (RC11_TRIM)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC max PWM (RC11_MAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC reverse (RC11_REV)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Reversed
    1 Normal

RC dead-zone (RC11_DZ)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

  • Range: 0 200
  • Units: pwm

Servo out function (RC11_FUNCTION)

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 RCPassThru
    2 Flap
    3 Flap_auto
    4 Aileron
    6 mount_pan
    7 mount_tilt
    8 mount_roll
    9 mount_open
    10 camera_trigger
    11 release
    12 mount2_pan
    13 mount2_tilt
    14 mount2_roll
    15 mount2_open
    16 DifferentialSpoiler1
    17 DifferentialSpoiler2
    18 AileronWithInput
    19 Elevator
    20 ElevatorWithInput
    21 Rudder
    24 Flaperon1
    25 Flaperon2
    26 GroundSteering
    27 Parachute
    28 EPM
    29 LandingGear
    30 EngineRunEnable
    31 HeliRSC
    32 HeliTailRSC

RC12_ Parameters

RC min PWM (RC12_MIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC trim PWM (RC12_TRIM)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC max PWM (RC12_MAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC reverse (RC12_REV)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Reversed
    1 Normal

RC dead-zone (RC12_DZ)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

  • Range: 0 200
  • Units: pwm

Servo out function (RC12_FUNCTION)

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 RCPassThru
    2 Flap
    3 Flap_auto
    4 Aileron
    6 mount_pan
    7 mount_tilt
    8 mount_roll
    9 mount_open
    10 camera_trigger
    11 release
    12 mount2_pan
    13 mount2_tilt
    14 mount2_roll
    15 mount2_open
    16 DifferentialSpoiler1
    17 DifferentialSpoiler2
    18 AileronWithInput
    19 Elevator
    20 ElevatorWithInput
    21 Rudder
    24 Flaperon1
    25 Flaperon2
    26 GroundSteering
    27 Parachute
    28 EPM
    29 LandingGear
    30 EngineRunEnable
    31 HeliRSC
    32 HeliTailRSC

RC13_ Parameters

RC min PWM (RC13_MIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC trim PWM (RC13_TRIM)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC max PWM (RC13_MAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC reverse (RC13_REV)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Reversed
    1 Normal

RC dead-zone (RC13_DZ)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

  • Range: 0 200
  • Units: pwm

Servo out function (RC13_FUNCTION)

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 RCPassThru
    2 Flap
    3 Flap_auto
    4 Aileron
    6 mount_pan
    7 mount_tilt
    8 mount_roll
    9 mount_open
    10 camera_trigger
    11 release
    12 mount2_pan
    13 mount2_tilt
    14 mount2_roll
    15 mount2_open
    16 DifferentialSpoiler1
    17 DifferentialSpoiler2
    18 AileronWithInput
    19 Elevator
    20 ElevatorWithInput
    21 Rudder
    24 Flaperon1
    25 Flaperon2
    26 GroundSteering
    27 Parachute
    28 EPM
    29 LandingGear
    30 EngineRunEnable
    31 HeliRSC
    32 HeliTailRSC

RC14_ Parameters

RC min PWM (RC14_MIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC trim PWM (RC14_TRIM)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC max PWM (RC14_MAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

  • Range: 800 2200
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: pwm

RC reverse (RC14_REV)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Reversed
    1 Normal

RC dead-zone (RC14_DZ)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

  • Range: 0 200
  • Units: pwm

Servo out function (RC14_FUNCTION)

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 RCPassThru
    2 Flap
    3 Flap_auto
    4 Aileron
    6 mount_pan
    7 mount_tilt
    8 mount_roll
    9 mount_open
    10 camera_trigger
    11 release
    12 mount2_pan
    13 mount2_tilt
    14 mount2_roll
    15 mount2_open
    16 DifferentialSpoiler1
    17 DifferentialSpoiler2
    18 AileronWithInput
    19 Elevator
    20 ElevatorWithInput
    21 Rudder
    24 Flaperon1
    25 Flaperon2
    26 GroundSteering
    27 Parachute
    28 EPM
    29 LandingGear
    30 EngineRunEnable
    31 HeliRSC
    32 HeliTailRSC

RLL2SRV_ Parameters

Roll Time Constant (RLL2SRV_TCONST)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the time constant in seconds from demanded to achieved bank angle. A value of 0.5 is a good default and will work with nearly all models. Advanced users may want to reduce this time to obtain a faster response but there is no point setting a time less than the aircraft can achieve.

  • Range: 0.4 1.0
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: seconds

Proportional Gain (RLL2SRV_P)

This is the gain from bank angle error to aileron.

  • Range: 0.1 4.0
  • Increment: 0.1

Damping Gain (RLL2SRV_D)

This is the gain from roll rate to aileron. This adjusts the damping of the roll control loop. It has the same effect as RLL2SRV_D in the old PID controller but without the spikes in servo demands. This gain helps to reduce rolling in turbulence. It should be increased in 0.01 increments as too high a value can lead to a high frequency roll oscillation that could overstress the airframe.

  • Range: 0 0.1
  • Increment: 0.01

Integrator Gain (RLL2SRV_I)

This is the gain from the integral of bank angle to aileron. It has the same effect as RLL2SRV_I in the old PID controller. Increasing this gain causes the controller to trim out steady offsets due to an out of trim aircraft.

  • Range: 0 1.0
  • Increment: 0.05

Maximum Roll Rate (RLL2SRV_RMAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the maximum roll rate that the controller will demand (degrees/sec). Setting it to zero disables the limit. If this value is set too low, then the roll can’t keep up with the navigation demands and the plane will start weaving. If it is set too high (or disabled by setting to zero) then ailerons will get large inputs at the start of turns. A limit of 60 degrees/sec is a good default.

  • Range: 0 180
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: degrees/second

Integrator limit (RLL2SRV_IMAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This limits the number of degrees of aileron in centi-degrees over which the integrator will operate. At the default setting of 3000 centi-degrees, the integrator will be limited to +- 30 degrees of servo travel. The maximum servo deflection is +- 45 centi-degrees, so the default value represents a 2/3rd of the total control throw which is adequate unless the aircraft is severely out of trim.

  • Range: 0 4500
  • Increment: 1

Feed forward Gain (RLL2SRV_FF)

This is the gain from demanded rate to aileron output.

  • Range: 0.1 4.0
  • Increment: 0.1

PTCH2SRV_ Parameters

Pitch Time Constant (PTCH2SRV_TCONST)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the time constant in seconds from demanded to achieved pitch angle. A value of 0.5 is a good default and will work with nearly all models. Advanced users may want to reduce this time to obtain a faster response but there is no point setting a time less than the aircraft can achieve.

  • Range: 0.4 1.0
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: seconds

Proportional Gain (PTCH2SRV_P)

This is the gain from pitch angle to elevator. This gain works the same way as PTCH2SRV_P in the old PID controller and can be set to the same value.

  • Range: 0.1 3.0
  • Increment: 0.1

Damping Gain (PTCH2SRV_D)

This is the gain from pitch rate to elevator. This adjusts the damping of the pitch control loop. It has the same effect as PTCH2SRV_D in the old PID controller and can be set to the same value, but without the spikes in servo demands. This gain helps to reduce pitching in turbulence. Some airframes such as flying wings that have poor pitch damping can benefit from increasing this gain term. This should be increased in 0.01 increments as too high a value can lead to a high frequency pitch oscillation that could overstress the airframe.

  • Range: 0 0.1
  • Increment: 0.01

Integrator Gain (PTCH2SRV_I)

This is the gain applied to the integral of pitch angle. It has the same effect as PTCH2SRV_I in the old PID controller and can be set to the same value. Increasing this gain causes the controller to trim out constant offsets between demanded and measured pitch angle.

  • Range: 0 0.5
  • Increment: 0.05

Pitch up max rate (PTCH2SRV_RMAX_UP)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the maximum nose up pitch rate that the controller will demand (degrees/sec). Setting it to zero disables the limit.

  • Range: 0 100
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: degrees/second

Pitch down max rate (PTCH2SRV_RMAX_DN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the maximum nose down pitch rate that the controller will demand (degrees/sec). Setting it to zero disables the limit.

  • Range: 0 100
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: degrees/second

Roll compensation (PTCH2SRV_RLL)

This is the gain term that is applied to the pitch rate offset calculated as required to keep the nose level during turns. The default value is 1 which will work for all models. Advanced users can use it to correct for height variation in turns. If height is lost initially in turns this can be increased in small increments of 0.05 to compensate. If height is gained initially in turns then it can be decreased.

  • Range: 0.7 1.5
  • Increment: 0.05

Integrator limit (PTCH2SRV_IMAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This limits the number of centi-degrees of elevator over which the integrator will operate. At the default setting of 3000 centi-degrees, the integrator will be limited to +- 30 degrees of servo travel. The maximum servo deflection is +- 45 degrees, so the default value represents a 2/3rd of the total control throw which is adequate for most aircraft unless they are severely out of trim or have very limited elevator control effectiveness.

  • Range: 0 4500
  • Increment: 1

Feed forward Gain (PTCH2SRV_FF)

This is the gain from demanded rate to elevator output.

  • Range: 0.1 4.0
  • Increment: 0.1

YAW2SRV_ Parameters

Sideslip control gain (YAW2SRV_SLIP)

This is the gain from measured lateral acceleration to demanded yaw rate. It should be set to zero unless active control of sideslip is desired. This will only work effectively if there is enough fuselage side area to generate a measureable lateral acceleration when the model sideslips. Flying wings and most gliders cannot use this term. This term should only be adjusted after the basic yaw damper gain YAW2SRV_DAMP is tuned and the YAW2SRV_INT integrator gain has been set. Set this gain to zero if only yaw damping is required.

  • Range: 0 4
  • Increment: 0.25

Sideslip control integrator (YAW2SRV_INT)

This is the integral gain from lateral acceleration error. This gain should only be non-zero if active control over sideslip is desired. If active control over sideslip is required then this can be set to 1.0 as a first try.

  • Range: 0 2
  • Increment: 0.25

Yaw damping (YAW2SRV_DAMP)

This is the gain from yaw rate to rudder. It acts as a damper on yaw motion. If a basic yaw damper is required, this gain term can be incremented, whilst leaving the YAW2SRV_SLIP and YAW2SRV_INT gains at zero. Note that unlike with a standard PID controller, if this damping term is zero then the integrator will also be disabled.

  • Range: 0 2
  • Increment: 0.25

Yaw coordination gain (YAW2SRV_RLL)

This is the gain term that is applied to the yaw rate offset calculated as required to keep the yaw rate consistent with the turn rate for a coordinated turn. The default value is 1 which will work for all models. Advanced users can use it to correct for any tendency to yaw away from or into the turn once the turn is established. Increase to make the model yaw more initially and decrease to make the model yaw less initially. If values greater than 1.1 or less than 0.9 are required then it normally indicates a problem with the airspeed calibration.

  • Range: 0.8 1.2
  • Increment: 0.05

Integrator limit (YAW2SRV_IMAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This limits the number of centi-degrees of rudder over which the integrator will operate. At the default setting of 1500 centi-degrees, the integrator will be limited to +- 15 degrees of servo travel. The maximum servo deflection is +- 45 degrees, so the default value represents a 1/3rd of the total control throw which is adequate for most aircraft unless they are severely out of trim or have very limited rudder control effectiveness.

  • Range: 0 4500
  • Increment: 1

STEER2SRV_ Parameters

Steering Time Constant (STEER2SRV_TCONST)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the time constant in seconds from demanded to achieved steering angle. A value of 0.75 is a good default and will work with nearly all rovers. Ground steering in aircraft needs a bit smaller time constant, and a value of 0.5 is recommended for best ground handling in fixed wing aircraft. A value of 0.75 means that the controller will try to correct any deviation between the desired and actual steering angle in 0.75 seconds. Advanced users may want to reduce this time to obtain a faster response but there is no point setting a time less than the vehicle can achieve.

  • Range: 0.4 1.0
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: seconds

Steering turning gain (STEER2SRV_P)

The proportional gain for steering. This should be approximately equal to the diameter of the turning circle of the vehicle at low speed and maximum steering angle

  • Range: 0.1 10.0
  • Increment: 0.1

Integrator Gain (STEER2SRV_I)

This is the gain from the integral of steering angle. Increasing this gain causes the controller to trim out steady offsets due to an out of trim vehicle.

  • Range: 0 1.0
  • Increment: 0.05

Damping Gain (STEER2SRV_D)

This adjusts the damping of the steering control loop. This gain helps to reduce steering jitter with vibration. It should be increased in 0.01 increments as too high a value can lead to a high frequency steering oscillation that could overstress the vehicle.

  • Range: 0 0.1
  • Increment: 0.01

Integrator limit (STEER2SRV_IMAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This limits the number of degrees of steering in centi-degrees over which the integrator will operate. At the default setting of 1500 centi-degrees, the integrator will be limited to +- 15 degrees of servo travel. The maximum servo deflection is +- 45 centi-degrees, so the default value represents a 1/3rd of the total control throw which is adequate unless the vehicle is severely out of trim.

  • Range: 0 4500
  • Increment: 1

Minimum speed (STEER2SRV_MINSPD)

This is the minimum assumed ground speed in meters/second for steering. Having a minimum speed prevents oscillations when the vehicle first starts moving. The vehicle can still drive slower than this limit, but the steering calculations will be done based on this minimum speed.

  • Range: 0 5
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: m/s

Steering feed forward (STEER2SRV_FF)

The feed forward gain for steering this is the ratio of the achieved turn rate to applied steering. A value of 1 means that the vehicle would yaw at a rate of 45 degrees per second with full steering deflection at 1m/s ground speed.

  • Range: 0.0 10.0
  • Increment: 0.1

COMPASS_ Parameters

Compass offsets in milligauss on the X axis (COMPASS_OFS_X)

Offset to be added to the compass x-axis values to compensate for metal in the frame

  • Range: -400 400
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: milligauss

Compass offsets in milligauss on the Y axis (COMPASS_OFS_Y)

Offset to be added to the compass y-axis values to compensate for metal in the frame

  • Range: -400 400
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: milligauss

Compass offsets in milligauss on the Z axis (COMPASS_OFS_Z)

Offset to be added to the compass z-axis values to compensate for metal in the frame

  • Range: -400 400
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: milligauss

Compass declination (COMPASS_DEC)

An angle to compensate between the true north and magnetic north

  • Range: -3.142 3.142
  • Increment: 0.01
  • Units: Radians

Learn compass offsets automatically (COMPASS_LEARN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Enable or disable the automatic learning of compass offsets

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Use compass for yaw (COMPASS_USE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Enable or disable the use of the compass (instead of the GPS) for determining heading

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Auto Declination (COMPASS_AUTODEC)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Enable or disable the automatic calculation of the declination based on gps location

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Motor interference compensation type (COMPASS_MOTCT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Set motor interference compensation type to disabled, throttle or current. Do not change manually.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Use Throttle
    2 Use Current

Motor interference compensation for body frame X axis (COMPASS_MOT_X)

Multiplied by the current throttle and added to the compass’s x-axis values to compensate for motor interference

  • Range: -1000 1000
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Offset per Amp or at Full Throttle

Motor interference compensation for body frame Y axis (COMPASS_MOT_Y)

Multiplied by the current throttle and added to the compass’s y-axis values to compensate for motor interference

  • Range: -1000 1000
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Offset per Amp or at Full Throttle

Motor interference compensation for body frame Z axis (COMPASS_MOT_Z)

Multiplied by the current throttle and added to the compass’s z-axis values to compensate for motor interference

  • Range: -1000 1000
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Offset per Amp or at Full Throttle

Compass orientation (COMPASS_ORIENT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The orientation of the compass relative to the autopilot board. This will default to the right value for each board type, but can be changed if you have an external compass. See the documentation for your external compass for the right value. The correct orientation should give the X axis forward, the Y axis to the right and the Z axis down. So if your aircraft is pointing west it should show a positive value for the Y axis, and a value close to zero for the X axis. On a PX4 or Pixhawk with an external compass the correct value is zero if the compass is correctly oriented. NOTE: This orientation is combined with any AHRS_ORIENTATION setting.

    Value Meaning
    0 None
    1 Yaw45
    2 Yaw90
    3 Yaw135
    4 Yaw180
    5 Yaw225
    6 Yaw270
    7 Yaw315
    8 Roll180
    9 Roll180Yaw45
    10 Roll180Yaw90
    11 Roll180Yaw135
    12 Pitch180
    13 Roll180Yaw225
    14 Roll180Yaw270
    15 Roll180Yaw315
    16 Roll90
    17 Roll90Yaw45
    18 Roll90Yaw90
    19 Roll90Yaw135
    20 Roll270
    21 Roll270Yaw45
    22 Roll270Yaw90
    23 Roll270Yaw136
    24 Pitch90
    25 Pitch270
    26 Pitch180Yaw90
    27 Pitch180Yaw270
    28 Roll90Pitch90
    29 Roll180Pitch90
    30 Roll270Pitch90
    31 Roll90Pitch180
    32 Roll270Pitch180
    33 Roll90Pitch270
    34 Roll180Pitch270
    35 Roll270Pitch270
    36 Roll90Pitch180Yaw90
    37 Roll90Yaw270
    38 Yaw293Pitch68Roll90

Compass is attached via an external cable (COMPASS_EXTERNAL)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Configure compass so it is attached externally. This is auto-detected on PX4 and Pixhawk, but must be set correctly on an APM2. Set to 1 if the compass is externally connected. When externally connected the COMPASS_ORIENT option operates independently of the AHRS_ORIENTATION board orientation option

    Value Meaning
    0 Internal
    1 External

Compass2 offsets in milligauss on the X axis (COMPASS_OFS2_X)

Offset to be added to compass2’s x-axis values to compensate for metal in the frame

  • Range: -400 400
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: milligauss

Compass2 offsets in milligauss on the Y axis (COMPASS_OFS2_Y)

Offset to be added to compass2’s y-axis values to compensate for metal in the frame

  • Range: -400 400
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: milligauss

Compass2 offsets in milligauss on the Z axis (COMPASS_OFS2_Z)

Offset to be added to compass2’s z-axis values to compensate for metal in the frame

  • Range: -400 400
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: milligauss

Motor interference compensation to compass2 for body frame X axis (COMPASS_MOT2_X)

Multiplied by the current throttle and added to compass2’s x-axis values to compensate for motor interference

  • Range: -1000 1000
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Offset per Amp or at Full Throttle

Motor interference compensation to compass2 for body frame Y axis (COMPASS_MOT2_Y)

Multiplied by the current throttle and added to compass2’s y-axis values to compensate for motor interference

  • Range: -1000 1000
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Offset per Amp or at Full Throttle

Motor interference compensation to compass2 for body frame Z axis (COMPASS_MOT2_Z)

Multiplied by the current throttle and added to compass2’s z-axis values to compensate for motor interference

  • Range: -1000 1000
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Offset per Amp or at Full Throttle

Choose primary compass (COMPASS_PRIMARY)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

If more than one compass is available this selects which compass is the primary. Normally 0=External, 1=Internal. If no External compass is attached this parameter is ignored

    Value Meaning
    0 FirstCompass
    1 SecondCompass
    2 ThirdCompass

Compass3 offsets in milligauss on the X axis (COMPASS_OFS3_X)

Offset to be added to compass3’s x-axis values to compensate for metal in the frame

  • Range: -400 400
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: milligauss

Compass3 offsets in milligauss on the Y axis (COMPASS_OFS3_Y)

Offset to be added to compass3’s y-axis values to compensate for metal in the frame

  • Range: -400 400
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: milligauss

Compass3 offsets in milligauss on the Z axis (COMPASS_OFS3_Z)

Offset to be added to compass3’s z-axis values to compensate for metal in the frame

  • Range: -400 400
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: milligauss

Motor interference compensation to compass3 for body frame X axis (COMPASS_MOT3_X)

Multiplied by the current throttle and added to compass3’s x-axis values to compensate for motor interference

  • Range: -1000 1000
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Offset per Amp or at Full Throttle

Motor interference compensation to compass3 for body frame Y axis (COMPASS_MOT3_Y)

Multiplied by the current throttle and added to compass3’s y-axis values to compensate for motor interference

  • Range: -1000 1000
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Offset per Amp or at Full Throttle

Motor interference compensation to compass3 for body frame Z axis (COMPASS_MOT3_Z)

Multiplied by the current throttle and added to compass3’s z-axis values to compensate for motor interference

  • Range: -1000 1000
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Offset per Amp or at Full Throttle

Compass device id (COMPASS_DEV_ID)

Compass device id. Automatically detected, do not set manually

Compass2 device id (COMPASS_DEV_ID2)

Second compass’s device id. Automatically detected, do not set manually

Compass3 device id (COMPASS_DEV_ID3)

Third compass’s device id. Automatically detected, do not set manually

Compass2 used for yaw (COMPASS_USE2)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Enable or disable the second compass for determining heading.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Compass2 orientation (COMPASS_ORIENT2)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The orientation of the second compass relative to the frame (if external) or autopilot board (if internal).

    Value Meaning
    0 None
    1 Yaw45
    2 Yaw90
    3 Yaw135
    4 Yaw180
    5 Yaw225
    6 Yaw270
    7 Yaw315
    8 Roll180
    9 Roll180Yaw45
    10 Roll180Yaw90
    11 Roll180Yaw135
    12 Pitch180
    13 Roll180Yaw225
    14 Roll180Yaw270
    15 Roll180Yaw315
    16 Roll90
    17 Roll90Yaw45
    18 Roll90Yaw90
    19 Roll90Yaw135
    20 Roll270
    21 Roll270Yaw45
    22 Roll270Yaw90
    23 Roll270Yaw136
    24 Pitch90
    25 Pitch270
    26 Pitch180Yaw90
    27 Pitch180Yaw270
    28 Roll90Pitch90
    29 Roll180Pitch90
    30 Roll270Pitch90
    31 Roll90Pitch180
    32 Roll270Pitch180
    33 Roll90Pitch270
    34 Roll180Pitch270
    35 Roll270Pitch270
    36 Roll90Pitch180Yaw90
    37 Roll90Yaw270
    38 Yaw293Pitch68Roll90

Compass2 is attached via an external cable (COMPASS_EXTERN2)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Configure second compass so it is attached externally. This is auto-detected on PX4 and Pixhawk.

    Value Meaning
    0 Internal
    1 External

Compass3 used for yaw (COMPASS_USE3)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Enable or disable the third compass for determining heading.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Compass3 orientation (COMPASS_ORIENT3)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The orientation of the third compass relative to the frame (if external) or autopilot board (if internal).

    Value Meaning
    0 None
    1 Yaw45
    2 Yaw90
    3 Yaw135
    4 Yaw180
    5 Yaw225
    6 Yaw270
    7 Yaw315
    8 Roll180
    9 Roll180Yaw45
    10 Roll180Yaw90
    11 Roll180Yaw135
    12 Pitch180
    13 Roll180Yaw225
    14 Roll180Yaw270
    15 Roll180Yaw315
    16 Roll90
    17 Roll90Yaw45
    18 Roll90Yaw90
    19 Roll90Yaw135
    20 Roll270
    21 Roll270Yaw45
    22 Roll270Yaw90
    23 Roll270Yaw136
    24 Pitch90
    25 Pitch270
    26 Pitch180Yaw90
    27 Pitch180Yaw270
    28 Roll90Pitch90
    29 Roll180Pitch90
    30 Roll270Pitch90
    31 Roll90Pitch180
    32 Roll270Pitch180
    33 Roll90Pitch270
    34 Roll180Pitch270
    35 Roll270Pitch270
    36 Roll90Pitch180Yaw90
    37 Roll90Yaw270
    38 Yaw293Pitch68Roll90

Compass3 is attached via an external cable (COMPASS_EXTERN3)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Configure third compass so it is attached externally. This is auto-detected on PX4 and Pixhawk.

    Value Meaning
    0 Internal
    1 External

Compass soft-iron diagonal X component (COMPASS_DIA_X)

DIA_X in the compass soft-iron calibration matrix: DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z

Compass soft-iron diagonal Y component (COMPASS_DIA_Y)

DIA_Y in the compass soft-iron calibration matrix: DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z

Compass soft-iron diagonal Z component (COMPASS_DIA_Z)

DIA_Z in the compass soft-iron calibration matrix: DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z

Compass soft-iron off-diagonal X component (COMPASS_ODI_X)

ODI_X in the compass soft-iron calibration matrix: DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z

Compass soft-iron off-diagonal Y component (COMPASS_ODI_Y)

ODI_Y in the compass soft-iron calibration matrix: DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z

Compass soft-iron off-diagonal Z component (COMPASS_ODI_Z)

ODI_Z in the compass soft-iron calibration matrix: DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z

Compass2 soft-iron diagonal X component (COMPASS_DIA2_X)

DIA_X in the compass2 soft-iron calibration matrix: DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z

Compass2 soft-iron diagonal Y component (COMPASS_DIA2_Y)

DIA_Y in the compass2 soft-iron calibration matrix: DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z

Compass2 soft-iron diagonal Z component (COMPASS_DIA2_Z)

DIA_Z in the compass2 soft-iron calibration matrix: DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z

Compass2 soft-iron off-diagonal X component (COMPASS_ODI2_X)

ODI_X in the compass2 soft-iron calibration matrix: DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z

Compass2 soft-iron off-diagonal Y component (COMPASS_ODI2_Y)

ODI_Y in the compass2 soft-iron calibration matrix: DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z

Compass2 soft-iron off-diagonal Z component (COMPASS_ODI2_Z)

ODI_Z in the compass2 soft-iron calibration matrix: DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z

Compass3 soft-iron diagonal X component (COMPASS_DIA3_X)

DIA_X in the compass3 soft-iron calibration matrix: DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z

Compass3 soft-iron diagonal Y component (COMPASS_DIA3_Y)

DIA_Y in the compass3 soft-iron calibration matrix: DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z

Compass3 soft-iron diagonal Z component (COMPASS_DIA3_Z)

DIA_Z in the compass3 soft-iron calibration matrix: DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z

Compass3 soft-iron off-diagonal X component (COMPASS_ODI3_X)

ODI_X in the compass3 soft-iron calibration matrix: DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z

Compass3 soft-iron off-diagonal Y component (COMPASS_ODI3_Y)

ODI_Y in the compass3 soft-iron calibration matrix: DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z

Compass3 soft-iron off-diagonal Z component (COMPASS_ODI3_Z)

ODI_Z in the compass3 soft-iron calibration matrix: DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z

Compass calibration fitness (COMPASS_CAL_FIT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the fitness level required for a successful compass calibration. A lower value makes for a stricter fit (less likely to pass). This is the value used for the primary magnetometer. Other magnetometers get double the value.

  • Range: 4 20
  • Increment: 0.1

SCHED_ Parameters

Scheduler debug level (SCHED_DEBUG)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Set to non-zero to enable scheduler debug messages. When set to show “Slips” the scheduler will display a message whenever a scheduled task is delayed due to too much CPU load. When set to ShowOverruns the scheduled will display a message whenever a task takes longer than the limit promised in the task table.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    2 ShowSlips
    3 ShowOverruns

Scheduling main loop rate (SCHED_LOOP_RATE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the rate of the main control loop in Hz. This should only be changed by developers. This only takes effect on restart

    Value Meaning
    50 50Hz
    100 100Hz
    200 200Hz
    250 250Hz
    300 300Hz
    400 400Hz
  • RebootRequired: True

RCMAP_ Parameters

Roll channel (RCMAP_ROLL)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Roll channel number. This is useful when you have a RC transmitter that can’t change the channel order easily. Roll is normally on channel 1, but you can move it to any channel with this parameter. Reboot is required for changes to take effect.

  • Range: 1 8
  • Increment: 1
  • RebootRequired: True

Pitch channel (RCMAP_PITCH)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Pitch channel number. This is useful when you have a RC transmitter that can’t change the channel order easily. Pitch is normally on channel 2, but you can move it to any channel with this parameter. Reboot is required for changes to take effect.

  • Range: 1 8
  • Increment: 1
  • RebootRequired: True

Throttle channel (RCMAP_THROTTLE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Throttle channel number. This is useful when you have a RC transmitter that can’t change the channel order easily. Throttle is normally on channel 3, but you can move it to any channel with this parameter. Warning APM 2.X: Changing the throttle channel could produce unexpected fail-safe results if connection between receiver and on-board PPM Encoder is lost. Disabling on-board PPM Encoder is recommended. Reboot is required for changes to take effect.

  • Range: 1 8
  • Increment: 1
  • RebootRequired: True

Yaw channel (RCMAP_YAW)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Yaw channel number. This is useful when you have a RC transmitter that can’t change the channel order easily. Yaw (also known as rudder) is normally on channel 4, but you can move it to any channel with this parameter. Reboot is required for changes to take effect.

  • Range: 1 8
  • Increment: 1
  • RebootRequired: True

SR0_ Parameters

Raw sensor stream rate (SR0_RAW_SENS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Raw sensor stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Extended status stream rate to ground station (SR0_EXT_STAT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extended status stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

RC Channel stream rate to ground station (SR0_RC_CHAN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC Channel stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Raw Control stream rate to ground station (SR0_RAW_CTRL)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Raw Control stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Position stream rate to ground station (SR0_POSITION)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Position stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Extra data type 1 stream rate to ground station (SR0_EXTRA1)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 1 stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Extra data type 2 stream rate to ground station (SR0_EXTRA2)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 2 stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Extra data type 3 stream rate to ground station (SR0_EXTRA3)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 3 stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Parameter stream rate to ground station (SR0_PARAMS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Parameter stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

SR1_ Parameters

Raw sensor stream rate (SR1_RAW_SENS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Raw sensor stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Extended status stream rate to ground station (SR1_EXT_STAT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extended status stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

RC Channel stream rate to ground station (SR1_RC_CHAN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC Channel stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Raw Control stream rate to ground station (SR1_RAW_CTRL)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Raw Control stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Position stream rate to ground station (SR1_POSITION)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Position stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Extra data type 1 stream rate to ground station (SR1_EXTRA1)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 1 stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Extra data type 2 stream rate to ground station (SR1_EXTRA2)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 2 stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Extra data type 3 stream rate to ground station (SR1_EXTRA3)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 3 stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Parameter stream rate to ground station (SR1_PARAMS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Parameter stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

SR2_ Parameters

Raw sensor stream rate (SR2_RAW_SENS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Raw sensor stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Extended status stream rate to ground station (SR2_EXT_STAT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extended status stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

RC Channel stream rate to ground station (SR2_RC_CHAN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC Channel stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Raw Control stream rate to ground station (SR2_RAW_CTRL)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Raw Control stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Position stream rate to ground station (SR2_POSITION)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Position stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Extra data type 1 stream rate to ground station (SR2_EXTRA1)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 1 stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Extra data type 2 stream rate to ground station (SR2_EXTRA2)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 2 stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Extra data type 3 stream rate to ground station (SR2_EXTRA3)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 3 stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Parameter stream rate to ground station (SR2_PARAMS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Parameter stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

SR3_ Parameters

Raw sensor stream rate (SR3_RAW_SENS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Raw sensor stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Extended status stream rate to ground station (SR3_EXT_STAT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extended status stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

RC Channel stream rate to ground station (SR3_RC_CHAN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC Channel stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Raw Control stream rate to ground station (SR3_RAW_CTRL)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Raw Control stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Position stream rate to ground station (SR3_POSITION)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Position stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Extra data type 1 stream rate to ground station (SR3_EXTRA1)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 1 stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Extra data type 2 stream rate to ground station (SR3_EXTRA2)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 2 stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Extra data type 3 stream rate to ground station (SR3_EXTRA3)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 3 stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

Parameter stream rate to ground station (SR3_PARAMS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Parameter stream rate to ground station

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Hz

INS_ Parameters

IMU Product ID (INS_PRODUCT_ID)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Which type of IMU is installed (read-only).

    Value Meaning
    0 Unknown
    1 APM1-1280
    2 APM1-2560
    88 APM2
    3 SITL
    4 PX4v1
    5 PX4v2
    256 Flymaple
    257 Linux

Gyro offsets of X axis (INS_GYROFFS_X)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro sensor offsets of X axis. This is setup on each boot during gyro calibrations

  • Units: rad/s

Gyro offsets of Y axis (INS_GYROFFS_Y)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro sensor offsets of Y axis. This is setup on each boot during gyro calibrations

  • Units: rad/s

Gyro offsets of Z axis (INS_GYROFFS_Z)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro sensor offsets of Z axis. This is setup on each boot during gyro calibrations

  • Units: rad/s

Gyro2 offsets of X axis (INS_GYR2OFFS_X)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro2 sensor offsets of X axis. This is setup on each boot during gyro calibrations

  • Units: rad/s

Gyro2 offsets of Y axis (INS_GYR2OFFS_Y)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro2 sensor offsets of Y axis. This is setup on each boot during gyro calibrations

  • Units: rad/s

Gyro2 offsets of Z axis (INS_GYR2OFFS_Z)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro2 sensor offsets of Z axis. This is setup on each boot during gyro calibrations

  • Units: rad/s

Gyro3 offsets of X axis (INS_GYR3OFFS_X)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro3 sensor offsets of X axis. This is setup on each boot during gyro calibrations

  • Units: rad/s

Gyro3 offsets of Y axis (INS_GYR3OFFS_Y)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro3 sensor offsets of Y axis. This is setup on each boot during gyro calibrations

  • Units: rad/s

Gyro3 offsets of Z axis (INS_GYR3OFFS_Z)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro3 sensor offsets of Z axis. This is setup on each boot during gyro calibrations

  • Units: rad/s

Accelerometer scaling of X axis (INS_ACCSCAL_X)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer scaling of X axis. Calculated during acceleration calibration routine

  • Range: 0.8 1.2

Accelerometer scaling of Y axis (INS_ACCSCAL_Y)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer scaling of Y axis Calculated during acceleration calibration routine

  • Range: 0.8 1.2

Accelerometer scaling of Z axis (INS_ACCSCAL_Z)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer scaling of Z axis Calculated during acceleration calibration routine

  • Range: 0.8 1.2

Accelerometer offsets of X axis (INS_ACCOFFS_X)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer offsets of X axis. This is setup using the acceleration calibration or level operations

  • Range: -3.5 3.5
  • Units: m/s/s

Accelerometer offsets of Y axis (INS_ACCOFFS_Y)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer offsets of Y axis. This is setup using the acceleration calibration or level operations

  • Range: -3.5 3.5
  • Units: m/s/s

Accelerometer offsets of Z axis (INS_ACCOFFS_Z)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer offsets of Z axis. This is setup using the acceleration calibration or level operations

  • Range: -3.5 3.5
  • Units: m/s/s

Accelerometer2 scaling of X axis (INS_ACC2SCAL_X)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer2 scaling of X axis. Calculated during acceleration calibration routine

  • Range: 0.8 1.2

Accelerometer2 scaling of Y axis (INS_ACC2SCAL_Y)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer2 scaling of Y axis Calculated during acceleration calibration routine

  • Range: 0.8 1.2

Accelerometer2 scaling of Z axis (INS_ACC2SCAL_Z)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer2 scaling of Z axis Calculated during acceleration calibration routine

  • Range: 0.8 1.2

Accelerometer2 offsets of X axis (INS_ACC2OFFS_X)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer2 offsets of X axis. This is setup using the acceleration calibration or level operations

  • Range: -3.5 3.5
  • Units: m/s/s

Accelerometer2 offsets of Y axis (INS_ACC2OFFS_Y)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer2 offsets of Y axis. This is setup using the acceleration calibration or level operations

  • Range: -3.5 3.5
  • Units: m/s/s

Accelerometer2 offsets of Z axis (INS_ACC2OFFS_Z)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer2 offsets of Z axis. This is setup using the acceleration calibration or level operations

  • Range: -3.5 3.5
  • Units: m/s/s

Accelerometer3 scaling of X axis (INS_ACC3SCAL_X)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer3 scaling of X axis. Calculated during acceleration calibration routine

  • Range: 0.8 1.2

Accelerometer3 scaling of Y axis (INS_ACC3SCAL_Y)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer3 scaling of Y axis Calculated during acceleration calibration routine

  • Range: 0.8 1.2

Accelerometer3 scaling of Z axis (INS_ACC3SCAL_Z)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer3 scaling of Z axis Calculated during acceleration calibration routine

  • Range: 0.8 1.2

Accelerometer3 offsets of X axis (INS_ACC3OFFS_X)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer3 offsets of X axis. This is setup using the acceleration calibration or level operations

  • Range: -3.5 3.5
  • Units: m/s/s

Accelerometer3 offsets of Y axis (INS_ACC3OFFS_Y)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer3 offsets of Y axis. This is setup using the acceleration calibration or level operations

  • Range: -3.5 3.5
  • Units: m/s/s

Accelerometer3 offsets of Z axis (INS_ACC3OFFS_Z)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer3 offsets of Z axis. This is setup using the acceleration calibration or level operations

  • Range: -3.5 3.5
  • Units: m/s/s

Gyro filter cutoff frequency (INS_GYRO_FILTER)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Filter cutoff frequency for gyroscopes. This can be set to a lower value to try to cope with very high vibration levels in aircraft. This option takes effect on the next reboot. A value of zero means no filtering (not recommended!)

  • Range: 0 127
  • Units: Hz

Accel filter cutoff frequency (INS_ACCEL_FILTER)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Filter cutoff frequency for accelerometers. This can be set to a lower value to try to cope with very high vibration levels in aircraft. This option takes effect on the next reboot. A value of zero means no filtering (not recommended!)

  • Range: 0 127
  • Units: Hz

Use first IMU for attitude, velocity and position estimates (INS_USE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Use first IMU for attitude, velocity and position estimates

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Use second IMU for attitude, velocity and position estimates (INS_USE2)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Use second IMU for attitude, velocity and position estimates

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Use third IMU for attitude, velocity and position estimates (INS_USE3)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Use third IMU for attitude, velocity and position estimates

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Stillness threshold for detecting if we are moving (INS_STILL_THRESH)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Threshold to tolerate vibration to determine if vehicle is motionless. This depends on the frame type and if there is a constant vibration due to motors before launch or after landing. Total motionless is about 0.05. Suggested values: Planes/rover use 0.1, multirotors use 1, tradHeli uses 5

  • Range: 0.05 50

Gyro Calibration scheme (INS_GYR_CAL)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Conrols when automatic gyro calibration is performed

    Value Meaning
    0 Never
    1 Start-up only

Accel cal trim option (INS_TRIM_OPTION)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Specifies how the accel cal routine determines the trims

    Value Meaning
    0 Don’t adjust the trims
    1 Assume first orientation was level
    2 Assume ACC_BODYFIX is perfectly aligned to the vehicle

Body-fixed accelerometer (INS_ACC_BODYFIX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The body-fixed accelerometer to be used for trim calculation

    Value Meaning
    1 IMU 1
    2 IMU 2
    3 IMU 3

AHRS_ Parameters

AHRS GPS gain (AHRS_GPS_GAIN)

This controls how how much to use the GPS to correct the attitude. This should never be set to zero for a plane as it would result in the plane losing control in turns. For a plane please use the default value of 1.0.

  • Range: 0.0 1.0
  • Increment: .01

AHRS use GPS for navigation (AHRS_GPS_USE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls whether to use dead-reckoning or GPS based navigation. If set to 0 then the GPS won’t be used for navigation, and only dead reckoning will be used. A value of zero should never be used for normal flight.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Yaw P (AHRS_YAW_P)

This controls the weight the compass or GPS has on the heading. A higher value means the heading will track the yaw source (GPS or compass) more rapidly.

  • Range: 0.1 0.4
  • Increment: .01

AHRS RP_P (AHRS_RP_P)

This controls how fast the accelerometers correct the attitude

  • Range: 0.1 0.4
  • Increment: .01

Maximum wind (AHRS_WIND_MAX)

This sets the maximum allowable difference between ground speed and airspeed. This allows the plane to cope with a failing airspeed sensor. A value of zero means to use the airspeed as is.

  • Range: 0 127
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: m/s

AHRS Trim Roll (AHRS_TRIM_X)

Compensates for the roll angle difference between the control board and the frame. Positive values make the vehicle roll right.

  • Range: -0.1745 +0.1745
  • Increment: 0.01
  • Units: Radians

AHRS Trim Pitch (AHRS_TRIM_Y)

Compensates for the pitch angle difference between the control board and the frame. Positive values make the vehicle pitch up/back.

  • Range: -0.1745 +0.1745
  • Increment: 0.01
  • Units: Radians

AHRS Trim Yaw (AHRS_TRIM_Z)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Not Used

  • Range: -0.1745 +0.1745
  • Increment: 0.01
  • Units: Radians

Board Orientation (AHRS_ORIENTATION)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Overall board orientation relative to the standard orientation for the board type. This rotates the IMU and compass readings to allow the board to be oriented in your vehicle at any 90 or 45 degree angle. This option takes affect on next boot. After changing you will need to re-level your vehicle.

    Value Meaning
    0 None
    1 Yaw45
    2 Yaw90
    3 Yaw135
    4 Yaw180
    5 Yaw225
    6 Yaw270
    7 Yaw315
    8 Roll180
    9 Roll180Yaw45
    10 Roll180Yaw90
    11 Roll180Yaw135
    12 Pitch180
    13 Roll180Yaw225
    14 Roll180Yaw270
    15 Roll180Yaw315
    16 Roll90
    17 Roll90Yaw45
    18 Roll90Yaw90
    19 Roll90Yaw135
    20 Roll270
    21 Roll270Yaw45
    22 Roll270Yaw90
    23 Roll270Yaw136
    24 Pitch90
    25 Pitch270
    26 Pitch180Yaw90
    27 Pitch180Yaw270
    28 Roll90Pitch90
    29 Roll180Pitch90
    30 Roll270Pitch90
    31 Roll90Pitch180
    32 Roll270Pitch180
    33 Roll90Pitch270
    34 Roll180Pitch270
    35 Roll270Pitch270
    36 Roll90Pitch180Yaw90
    37 Roll90Yaw270

AHRS Velocity Complementary Filter Beta Coefficient (AHRS_COMP_BETA)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the time constant for the cross-over frequency used to fuse AHRS (airspeed and heading) and GPS data to estimate ground velocity. Time constant is 0.1/beta. A larger time constant will use GPS data less and a small time constant will use air data less.

  • Range: 0.001 0.5
  • Increment: .01

AHRS GPS Minimum satellites (AHRS_GPS_MINSATS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Minimum number of satellites visible to use GPS for velocity based corrections attitude correction. This defaults to 6, which is about the point at which the velocity numbers from a GPS become too unreliable for accurate correction of the accelerometers.

  • Range: 0 10
  • Increment: 1

Use NavEKF Kalman filter for attitude and position estimation (AHRS_EKF_TYPE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls whether the NavEKF Kalman filter is used for attitude and position estimation and whether fallback to the DCM algorithm is allowed. Note that on copters “disabled” is not available, and will be the same as “enabled – no fallback”

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled
    2 Enable EKF2

ARSPD_ Parameters

Airspeed enable (ARSPD_ENABLE)

enable airspeed sensor

    Value Meaning
    0 Disable
    1 Enable

Airspeed use (ARSPD_USE)

use airspeed for flight control

    Value Meaning
    1 Use
    0 Don’t Use

Airspeed offset (ARSPD_OFFSET)

Airspeed calibration offset

  • Increment: 0.1

Airspeed ratio (ARSPD_RATIO)

Airspeed calibration ratio

  • Increment: 0.1

Airspeed pin (ARSPD_PIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The analog pin number that the airspeed sensor is connected to. Set this to 0..9 for the APM2 analog pins. Set to 64 on an APM1 for the dedicated airspeed port on the end of the board. Set to 11 on PX4 for the analog airspeed port. Set to 15 on the Pixhawk for the analog airspeed port. Set to 65 on the PX4 or Pixhawk for an EagleTree or MEAS I2C airspeed sensor.

Automatic airspeed ratio calibration (ARSPD_AUTOCAL)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

If this is enabled then the APM will automatically adjust the ARSPD_RATIO during flight, based upon an estimation filter using ground speed and true airspeed. The automatic calibration will save the new ratio to EEPROM every 2 minutes if it changes by more than 5%. This option should be enabled for a calibration flight then disabled again when calibration is complete. Leaving it enabled all the time is not recommended.

Control pitot tube order (ARSPD_TUBE_ORDER)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter allows you to control whether the order in which the tubes are attached to your pitot tube matters. If you set this to 0 then the top connector on the sensor needs to be the dynamic pressure. If set to 1 then the bottom connector needs to be the dynamic pressure. If set to 2 (the default) then the airspeed driver will accept either order. The reason you may wish to specify the order is it will allow your airspeed sensor to detect if the aircraft it receiving excessive pressure on the static port, which would otherwise be seen as a positive airspeed.

Skip airspeed calibration on startup (ARSPD_SKIP_CAL)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter allows you to skip airspeed offset calibration on startup, instead using the offset from the last calibration. This may be desirable if the offset variance between flights for your sensor is low and you want to avoid having to cover the pitot tube on each boot.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disable
    1 Enable

NAVL1_ Parameters

L1 control period (NAVL1_PERIOD)

Period in seconds of L1 tracking loop. This parameter is the primary control for agressiveness of turns in auto mode. This needs to be larger for less responsive airframes. The default of 20 is quite conservative, but for most RC aircraft will lead to reasonable flight. For smaller more agile aircraft a value closer to 15 is appropriate, or even as low as 10 for some very agile aircraft. When tuning, change this value in small increments, as a value that is much too small (say 5 or 10 below the right value) can lead to very radical turns, and a risk of stalling.

  • Range: 1 60
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: seconds

L1 control damping ratio (NAVL1_DAMPING)

Damping ratio for L1 control. Increase this in increments of 0.05 if you are getting overshoot in path tracking. You should not need a value below 0.7 or above 0.85.

  • Range: 0.6 1.0
  • Increment: 0.05

L1 control crosstrack integrator gain (NAVL1_XTRACK_I)

Crosstrack error integrator gain. This gain is applied to the crosstrack error to ensure it converges to zero. Set to zero to disable. Smaller values converge slower, higher values will cause crosstrack error oscillation.

  • Range: 0 0.1
  • Increment: 0.01

TECS_ Parameters

Maximum Climb Rate (metres/sec) (TECS_CLMB_MAX)

This is the best climb rate that the aircraft can achieve with the throttle set to THR_MAX and the airspeed set to the default value. For electric aircraft make sure this number can be achieved towards the end of flight when the battery voltage has reduced. The setting of this parameter can be checked by commanding a positive altitude change of 100m in loiter, RTL or guided mode. If the throttle required to climb is close to THR_MAX and the aircraft is maintaining airspeed, then this parameter is set correctly. If the airspeed starts to reduce, then the parameter is set to high, and if the throttle demand require to climb and maintain speed is noticeably less than THR_MAX, then either CLMB_MAX should be increased or THR_MAX reduced.

  • Range: 0.1 20.0
  • Increment: 0.1

Minimum Sink Rate (metres/sec) (TECS_SINK_MIN)

This is the sink rate of the aircraft with the throttle set to THR_MIN and the same airspeed as used to measure CLMB_MAX.

  • Range: 0.1 10.0
  • Increment: 0.1

Controller time constant (sec) (TECS_TIME_CONST)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the time constant of the TECS control algorithm. Smaller values make it faster to respond, large values make it slower to respond.

  • Range: 3.0 10.0
  • Increment: 0.2

Controller throttle damping (TECS_THR_DAMP)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the damping gain for the throttle demand loop. Increase to add damping to correct for oscillations in speed and height.

  • Range: 0.1 1.0
  • Increment: 0.1

Controller integrator (TECS_INTEG_GAIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the integrator gain on the control loop. Increase to increase the rate at which speed and height offsets are trimmed out

  • Range: 0.0 0.5
  • Increment: 0.02

Vertical Acceleration Limit (metres/sec^2) (TECS_VERT_ACC)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the maximum vertical acceleration either up or down that the controller will use to correct speed or height errors.

  • Range: 1.0 10.0
  • Increment: 0.5

Height complementary filter frequency (radians/sec) (TECS_HGT_OMEGA)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the cross-over frequency of the complementary filter used to fuse vertical acceleration and baro alt to obtain an estimate of height rate and height.

  • Range: 1.0 5.0
  • Increment: 0.05

Speed complementary filter frequency (radians/sec) (TECS_SPD_OMEGA)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the cross-over frequency of the complementary filter used to fuse longitudinal acceleration and airspeed to obtain a lower noise and lag estimate of airspeed.

  • Range: 0.5 2.0
  • Increment: 0.05

Bank angle compensation gain (TECS_RLL2THR)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Increasing this gain turn increases the amount of throttle that will be used to compensate for the additional drag created by turning. Ideally this should be set to approximately 10 x the extra sink rate in m/s created by a 45 degree bank turn. Increase this gain if the aircraft initially loses energy in turns and reduce if the aircraft initially gains energy in turns. Efficient high aspect-ratio aircraft (eg powered sailplanes) can use a lower value, whereas inefficient low aspect-ratio models (eg delta wings) can use a higher value.

  • Range: 5.0 30.0
  • Increment: 1.0

Weighting applied to speed control (TECS_SPDWEIGHT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter adjusts the amount of weighting that the pitch control applies to speed vs height errors. Setting it to 0.0 will cause the pitch control to control height and ignore speed errors. This will normally improve height accuracy but give larger airspeed errors. Setting it to 2.0 will cause the pitch control loop to control speed and ignore height errors. This will normally reduce airsped errors, but give larger height errors. A value of 1.0 gives a balanced response and is the default.

  • Range: 0.0 2.0
  • Increment: 0.1

Controller pitch damping (TECS_PTCH_DAMP)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the damping gain for the pitch demand loop. Increase to add damping to correct for oscillations in speed and height.

  • Range: 0.1 1.0
  • Increment: 0.1

Maximum Descent Rate (metres/sec) (TECS_SINK_MAX)

This sets the maximum descent rate that the controller will use. If this value is too large, the aircraft will reach the pitch angle limit first and be unable to achieve the descent rate. This should be set to a value that can be achieved at the lower pitch angle limit.

  • Range: 0.0 20.0
  • Increment: 0.1

Airspeed during landing approach (m/s) (TECS_LAND_ARSPD)

When performing an autonomus landing, this value is used as the goal airspeed during approach. Note that this parameter is not useful if your platform does not have an airspeed sensor (use TECS_LAND_THR instead). If negative then this value is not used during landing.

  • Range: -1 127
  • Increment: 1

Cruise throttle during landing approach (percentage) (TECS_LAND_THR)

Use this parameter instead of LAND_ARSPD if your platform does not have an airspeed sensor. It is the cruise throttle during landing approach. If this value is negative then it is disabled and TECS_LAND_ARSPD is used instead.

  • Range: -1 100
  • Increment: 0.1

Weighting applied to speed control during landing. (TECS_LAND_SPDWGT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Same as SPDWEIGHT parameter, with the exception that this parameter is applied during landing flight stages. A value closer to 2 will result in the plane ignoring height error during landing and our experience has been that the plane will therefore keep the nose up — sometimes good for a glider landing (with the side effect that you will likely glide a ways past the landing point). A value closer to 0 results in the plane ignoring speed error — use caution when lowering the value below 1 — ignoring speed could result in a stall. Values between 0 and 2 are valid values for a fixed landing weight. When using -1 the weight will be scaled during the landing. At the start of the landing approach it starts with TECS_SPDWEIGHT and scales down to 0 by the time you reach the land point. Example: Halfway down the landing approach you’ll effectively have a weight of TECS_SPDWEIGHT/2.

  • Range: -1.0 2.0
  • Increment: 0.1

Maximum pitch in auto flight (TECS_PITCH_MAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls maximum pitch up in automatic throttle modes. If this is set to zero then LIM_PITCH_MAX is used instead. The purpose of this parameter is to allow the use of a smaller pitch range when in automatic flight than what is used in FBWA mode.

  • Range: 0 45
  • Increment: 1

Minimum pitch in auto flight (TECS_PITCH_MIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls minimum pitch in automatic throttle modes. If this is set to zero then LIM_PITCH_MIN is used instead. The purpose of this parameter is to allow the use of a smaller pitch range when in automatic flight than what is used in FBWA mode. Note that TECS_PITCH_MIN should be a negative number.

  • Range: -45 0
  • Increment: 1

Sink rate for final landing stage (TECS_LAND_SINK)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The sink rate in meters/second for the final stage of landing.

  • Range: 0.0 2.0
  • Increment: 0.1

Land controller time constant (sec) (TECS_LAND_TCONST)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the time constant of the TECS control algorithm when in final landing stage of flight. It should be smaller than TECS_TIME_CONST to allow for faster flare

  • Range: 1.0 5.0
  • Increment: 0.2

Controller sink rate to pitch gain during flare (TECS_LAND_DAMP)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the sink rate gain for the pitch demand loop when in final landing stage of flight. It should be larger than TECS_PTCH_DAMP to allow for better sink rate control during flare.

  • Range: 0.1 1.0
  • Increment: 0.1

Maximum pitch during final stage of landing (TECS_LAND_PMAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This limits the pitch used during the final stage of automatic landing. During the final landing stage most planes need to keep their pitch small to avoid stalling. A maximum of 10 degrees is usually good. A value of zero means to use the normal pitch limits.

  • Range: -5 40
  • Increment: 1

Sink rate max for landing approach stage (TECS_APPR_SMAX)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The sink rate max for the landing approach stage of landing. This will need to be large for steep landing approaches especially when using reverse thrust. If 0, then use TECS_SINK_MAX.

  • Range: 0.0 20.0
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: m/s

MNT Parameters

Mount default operating mode (MNT_DEFLT_MODE)

Mount default operating mode on startup and after control is returned from autopilot

    Value Meaning
    0 Retracted
    1 Neutral
    2 MavLink Targeting
    3 RC Targeting
    4 GPS Point

Mount roll angle when in retracted position (MNT_RETRACT_X)

Mount roll angle when in retracted position

  • Range: -180.00 179.99
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Degrees

Mount tilt/pitch angle when in retracted position (MNT_RETRACT_Y)

Mount tilt/pitch angle when in retracted position

  • Range: -180.00 179.99
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Degrees

Mount yaw/pan angle when in retracted position (MNT_RETRACT_Z)

Mount yaw/pan angle when in retracted position

  • Range: -180.00 179.99
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Degrees

Mount roll angle when in neutral position (MNT_NEUTRAL_X)

Mount roll angle when in neutral position

  • Range: -180.00 179.99
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Degrees

Mount tilt/pitch angle when in neutral position (MNT_NEUTRAL_Y)

Mount tilt/pitch angle when in neutral position

  • Range: -180.00 179.99
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Degrees

Mount pan/yaw angle when in neutral position (MNT_NEUTRAL_Z)

Mount pan/yaw angle when in neutral position

  • Range: -180.00 179.99
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Degrees

Stabilize mount’s roll angle (MNT_STAB_ROLL)

enable roll stabilisation relative to Earth

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Stabilize mount’s pitch/tilt angle (MNT_STAB_TILT)

enable tilt/pitch stabilisation relative to Earth

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Stabilize mount pan/yaw angle (MNT_STAB_PAN)

enable pan/yaw stabilisation relative to Earth

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

roll RC input channel (MNT_RC_IN_ROLL)

0 for none, any other for the RC channel to be used to control roll movements

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    5 RC5
    6 RC6
    7 RC7
    8 RC8
    9 RC9
    10 RC10
    11 RC11
    12 RC12

Minimum roll angle (MNT_ANGMIN_ROL)

Minimum physical roll angular position of mount.

  • Range: -18000 17999
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Centi-Degrees

Maximum roll angle (MNT_ANGMAX_ROL)

Maximum physical roll angular position of the mount

  • Range: -18000 17999
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Centi-Degrees

tilt (pitch) RC input channel (MNT_RC_IN_TILT)

0 for none, any other for the RC channel to be used to control tilt (pitch) movements

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    5 RC5
    6 RC6
    7 RC7
    8 RC8
    9 RC9
    10 RC10
    11 RC11
    12 RC12

Minimum tilt angle (MNT_ANGMIN_TIL)

Minimum physical tilt (pitch) angular position of mount.

  • Range: -18000 17999
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Centi-Degrees

Maximum tilt angle (MNT_ANGMAX_TIL)

Maximum physical tilt (pitch) angular position of the mount

  • Range: -18000 17999
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Centi-Degrees

pan (yaw) RC input channel (MNT_RC_IN_PAN)

0 for none, any other for the RC channel to be used to control pan (yaw) movements

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    5 RC5
    6 RC6
    7 RC7
    8 RC8
    9 RC9
    10 RC10
    11 RC11
    12 RC12

Minimum pan angle (MNT_ANGMIN_PAN)

Minimum physical pan (yaw) angular position of mount.

  • Range: -18000 17999
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Centi-Degrees

Maximum pan angle (MNT_ANGMAX_PAN)

Maximum physical pan (yaw) angular position of the mount

  • Range: -18000 17999
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Centi-Degrees

mount joystick speed (MNT_JSTICK_SPD)

0 for position control, small for low speeds, 100 for max speed. A good general value is 10 which gives a movement speed of 3 degrees per second.

  • Range: 0 100
  • Increment: 1

Roll stabilization lead time (MNT_LEAD_RLL)

Causes the servo angle output to lead the current angle of the vehicle by some amount of time based on current angular rate, compensating for servo delay. Increase until the servo is responsive but doesn’t overshoot. Does nothing with pan stabilization enabled.

  • Range: 0.0 0.2
  • Increment: .005
  • Units: Seconds

Pitch stabilization lead time (MNT_LEAD_PTCH)

Causes the servo angle output to lead the current angle of the vehicle by some amount of time based on current angular rate. Increase until the servo is responsive but doesn’t overshoot. Does nothing with pan stabilization enabled.

  • Range: 0.0 0.2
  • Increment: .005
  • Units: Seconds

Mount Type (MNT_TYPE)

Mount Type (None, Servo or MAVLink)

    Value Meaning
    0 None
    1 Servo
    2 3DR Solo
    3 Alexmos Serial
    4 SToRM32 MAVLink
    5 SToRM32 Serial
  • RebootRequired: True

Mount default operating mode (MNT2_DEFLT_MODE)

Mount default operating mode on startup and after control is returned from autopilot

    Value Meaning
    0 Retracted
    1 Neutral
    2 MavLink Targeting
    3 RC Targeting
    4 GPS Point

Mount2 roll angle when in retracted position (MNT2_RETRACT_X)

Mount2 roll angle when in retracted position

  • Range: -180.00 179.99
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Degrees

Mount2 tilt/pitch angle when in retracted position (MNT2_RETRACT_Y)

Mount2 tilt/pitch angle when in retracted position

  • Range: -180.00 179.99
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Degrees

Mount2 yaw/pan angle when in retracted position (MNT2_RETRACT_Z)

Mount2 yaw/pan angle when in retracted position

  • Range: -180.00 179.99
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Degrees

Mount2 roll angle when in neutral position (MNT2_NEUTRAL_X)

Mount2 roll angle when in neutral position

  • Range: -180.00 179.99
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Degrees

Mount2 tilt/pitch angle when in neutral position (MNT2_NEUTRAL_Y)

Mount2 tilt/pitch angle when in neutral position

  • Range: -180.00 179.99
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Degrees

Mount2 pan/yaw angle when in neutral position (MNT2_NEUTRAL_Z)

Mount2 pan/yaw angle when in neutral position

  • Range: -180.00 179.99
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Degrees

Stabilize Mount2’s roll angle (MNT2_STAB_ROLL)

enable roll stabilisation relative to Earth

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Stabilize Mount2’s pitch/tilt angle (MNT2_STAB_TILT)

enable tilt/pitch stabilisation relative to Earth

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Stabilize mount2 pan/yaw angle (MNT2_STAB_PAN)

enable pan/yaw stabilisation relative to Earth

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Mount2’s roll RC input channel (MNT2_RC_IN_ROLL)

0 for none, any other for the RC channel to be used to control roll movements

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    5 RC5
    6 RC6
    7 RC7
    8 RC8
    9 RC9
    10 RC10
    11 RC11
    12 RC12

Mount2’s minimum roll angle (MNT2_ANGMIN_ROL)

Mount2’s minimum physical roll angular position

  • Range: -18000 17999
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Centi-Degrees

Mount2’s maximum roll angle (MNT2_ANGMAX_ROL)

Mount2’s maximum physical roll angular position

  • Range: -18000 17999
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Centi-Degrees

Mount2’s tilt (pitch) RC input channel (MNT2_RC_IN_TILT)

0 for none, any other for the RC channel to be used to control tilt (pitch) movements

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    5 RC5
    6 RC6
    7 RC7
    8 RC8
    9 RC9
    10 RC10
    11 RC11
    12 RC12

Mount2’s minimum tilt angle (MNT2_ANGMIN_TIL)

Mount2’s minimum physical tilt (pitch) angular position

  • Range: -18000 17999
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Centi-Degrees

Mount2’s maximum tilt angle (MNT2_ANGMAX_TIL)

Mount2’s maximum physical tilt (pitch) angular position

  • Range: -18000 17999
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Centi-Degrees

Mount2’s pan (yaw) RC input channel (MNT2_RC_IN_PAN)

0 for none, any other for the RC channel to be used to control pan (yaw) movements

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    5 RC5
    6 RC6
    7 RC7
    8 RC8
    9 RC9
    10 RC10
    11 RC11
    12 RC12

Mount2’s minimum pan angle (MNT2_ANGMIN_PAN)

Mount2’s minimum physical pan (yaw) angular position

  • Range: -18000 17999
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Centi-Degrees

Mount2’s maximum pan angle (MNT2_ANGMAX_PAN)

MOunt2’s maximum physical pan (yaw) angular position

  • Range: -18000 17999
  • Increment: 1
  • Units: Centi-Degrees

Mount2’s Roll stabilization lead time (MNT2_LEAD_RLL)

Causes the servo angle output to lead the current angle of the vehicle by some amount of time based on current angular rate, compensating for servo delay. Increase until the servo is responsive but doesn’t overshoot. Does nothing with pan stabilization enabled.

  • Range: 0.0 0.2
  • Increment: .005
  • Units: Seconds

Mount2’s Pitch stabilization lead time (MNT2_LEAD_PTCH)

Causes the servo angle output to lead the current angle of the vehicle by some amount of time based on current angular rate. Increase until the servo is responsive but doesn’t overshoot. Does nothing with pan stabilization enabled.

  • Range: 0.0 0.2
  • Increment: .005
  • Units: Seconds

Mount2 Type (MNT2_TYPE)

Mount Type (None, Servo or MAVLink)

    Value Meaning
    0 None
    1 Servo
    2 3DR Solo
    3 Alexmos Serial
    4 SToRM32 MAVLink
    5 SToRM32 Serial

LOG Parameters

DataFlash Backend Storage type (LOG_BACKEND_TYPE)

0 for None, 1 for File, 2 for dataflash mavlink, 3 for both file and dataflash

    Value Meaning
    0 None
    1 File
    2 MAVLink
    3 BothFileAndMAVLink

Maximum DataFlash File Backend buffer size (in kilobytes) (LOG_FILE_BUFSIZE)

The DataFlash_File backend uses a buffer to store data before writing to the block device. Raising this value may reduce “gaps” in your SD card logging. This buffer size may be reduced depending on available memory. PixHawk requires at least 4 kilobytes. Maximum value available here is 64 kilobytes.

BATT Parameters

Battery monitoring (BATT_MONITOR)

Controls enabling monitoring of the battery’s voltage and current

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    3 Analog Voltage Only
    4 Analog Voltage and Current
    5 SMBus
    6 Bebop

Battery Voltage sensing pin (BATT_VOLT_PIN)

Setting this to 0 ~ 13 will enable battery voltage sensing on pins A0 ~ A13. For the 3DR power brick on APM2.5 it should be set to 13. On the PX4 it should be set to 100. On the Pixhawk powered from the PM connector it should be set to 2.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Disabled
    0 A0
    1 A1
    2 Pixhawk
    13 A13
    100 PX4

Battery Current sensing pin (BATT_CURR_PIN)

Setting this to 0 ~ 13 will enable battery current sensing on pins A0 ~ A13. For the 3DR power brick on APM2.5 it should be set to 12. On the PX4 it should be set to 101. On the Pixhawk powered from the PM connector it should be set to 3.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Disabled
    1 A1
    2 A2
    3 Pixhawk
    12 A12
    101 PX4

Voltage Multiplier (BATT_VOLT_MULT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Used to convert the voltage of the voltage sensing pin (BATT_VOLT_PIN) to the actual battery’s voltage (pin_voltage * VOLT_MULT). For the 3DR Power brick on APM2 or Pixhawk, this should be set to 10.1. For the Pixhawk with the 3DR 4in1 ESC this should be 12.02. For the PX4 using the PX4IO power supply this should be set to 1.

Amps per volt (BATT_AMP_PERVOLT)

Number of amps that a 1V reading on the current sensor corresponds to. On the APM2 or Pixhawk using the 3DR Power brick this should be set to 17. For the Pixhawk with the 3DR 4in1 ESC this should be 17.

  • Units: Amps/Volt

AMP offset (BATT_AMP_OFFSET)

Voltage offset at zero current on current sensor

  • Units: Volts

Battery capacity (BATT_CAPACITY)

Capacity of the battery in mAh when full

  • Increment: 50
  • Units: mAh

Battery monitoring (BATT2_MONITOR)

Controls enabling monitoring of the battery’s voltage and current

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    3 Analog Voltage Only
    4 Analog Voltage and Current
    5 SMBus
    6 Bebop

Battery Voltage sensing pin (BATT2_VOLT_PIN)

Setting this to 0 ~ 13 will enable battery voltage sensing on pins A0 ~ A13. For the 3DR power brick on APM2.5 it should be set to 13. On the PX4 it should be set to 100. On the Pixhawk powered from the PM connector it should be set to 2.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Disabled
    0 A0
    1 A1
    2 Pixhawk
    13 A13
    100 PX4

Battery Current sensing pin (BATT2_CURR_PIN)

Setting this to 0 ~ 13 will enable battery current sensing on pins A0 ~ A13. For the 3DR power brick on APM2.5 it should be set to 12. On the PX4 it should be set to 101. On the Pixhawk powered from the PM connector it should be set to 3.

    Value Meaning
    -1 Disabled
    1 A1
    2 A2
    3 Pixhawk
    12 A12
    101 PX4

Voltage Multiplier (BATT2_VOLT_MULT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Used to convert the voltage of the voltage sensing pin (BATT_VOLT_PIN) to the actual battery’s voltage (pin_voltage * VOLT_MULT). For the 3DR Power brick on APM2 or Pixhawk, this should be set to 10.1. For the Pixhawk with the 3DR 4in1 ESC this should be 12.02. For the PX4 using the PX4IO power supply this should be set to 1.

Amps per volt (BATT2_AMP_PERVOL)

Number of amps that a 1V reading on the current sensor corresponds to. On the APM2 or Pixhawk using the 3DR Power brick this should be set to 17. For the Pixhawk with the 3DR 4in1 ESC this should be 17.

  • Units: Amps/Volt

AMP offset (BATT2_AMP_OFFSET)

Voltage offset at zero current on current sensor

  • Units: Volts

Battery capacity (BATT2_CAPACITY)

Capacity of the battery in mAh when full

  • Increment: 50
  • Units: mAh

BRD_ Parameters

PWM Count (BRD_PWM_COUNT)

Number of auxillary PWMs to enable. On PX4v1 only 0 or 2 is valid. On Pixhawk 0, 2, 4 or 6 is valid.

    Value Meaning
    0 No PWMs
    2 Two PWMs
    4 Four PWMs
    6 Six PWMs

Serial 1 flow control (BRD_SER1_RTSCTS)

Enable flow control on serial 1 (telemetry 1) on Pixhawk. You must have the RTS and CTS pins connected to your radio. The standard DF13 6 pin connector for a 3DR radio does have those pins connected. If this is set to 2 then flow control will be auto-detected by checking for the output buffer filling on startup. Note that the PX4v1 does not have hardware flow control pins on this port, so you should leave this disabled.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled
    2 Auto

Serial 2 flow control (BRD_SER2_RTSCTS)

Enable flow control on serial 2 (telemetry 2) on Pixhawk and PX4. You must have the RTS and CTS pins connected to your radio. The standard DF13 6 pin connector for a 3DR radio does have those pins connected. If this is set to 2 then flow control will be auto-detected by checking for the output buffer filling on startup.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled
    2 Auto

Enable use of safety arming switch (BRD_SAFETYENABLE)

Disabling this option will disable the use of the safety switch on PX4 for arming. Use of the safety switch is highly recommended, so you should leave this option set to 1 except in unusual circumstances.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

Enable use of SBUS output (BRD_SBUS_OUT)

Enabling this option on a Pixhawk enables SBUS servo output from the SBUS output connector

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

User-defined serial number (BRD_SERIAL_NUM)

User-defined serial number of this vehicle, it can be any arbitrary number you want and has no effect on the autopilot

  • Range: -32767 32768

Enable use of UAVCAN devices (BRD_CAN_ENABLE)

Enabling this option on a Pixhawk enables UAVCAN devices. Note that this uses about 25k of memory

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

AFS_ Parameters

Manual Pin (AFS_MAN_PIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets a digital output pin to set high when in manual mode

Heartbeat Pin (AFS_HB_PIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets a digital output pin which is cycled at 10Hz when termination is not activated. Note that if a FS_TERM_PIN is set then the heartbeat pin will continue to cycle at 10Hz when termination is activated, to allow the termination board to distinguish between autopilot crash and termination.

Comms Waypoint (AFS_WP_COMMS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Waypoint number to navigate to on comms loss

GPS Loss Waypoint (AFS_GPS_LOSS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Waypoint number to navigate to on GPS lock loss

Force Terminate (AFS_TERMINATE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Can be set in flight to force termination of the heartbeat signal

Terminate action (AFS_TERM_ACTION)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This can be used to force an action on flight termination. Normally this is handled by an external failsafe board, but you can setup APM to handle it here. If set to 0 (which is the default) then no extra action is taken. If set to the magic value 42 then the plane will deliberately crash itself by setting maximum throws on all surfaces, and zero throttle

Terminate Pin (AFS_TERM_PIN)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets a digital output pin to set high on flight termination

AMSL limit (AFS_AMSL_LIMIT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the AMSL (above mean sea level) altitude limit. If the pressure altitude determined by QNH exceeds this limit then flight termination will be forced. Note that this limit is in meters, whereas pressure altitude limits are often quoted in feet. A value of zero disables the pressure altitude limit.

  • Units: meters

Error margin for GPS based AMSL limit (AFS_AMSL_ERR_GPS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets margin for error in GPS derived altitude limit. This error margin is only used if the barometer has failed. If the barometer fails then the GPS will be used to enforce the AMSL_LIMIT, but this margin will be subtracted from the AMSL_LIMIT first, to ensure that even with the given amount of GPS altitude error the pressure altitude is not breached. OBC users should set this to comply with their D2 safety case. A value of -1 will mean that barometer failure will lead to immediate termination.

  • Units: meters

QNH pressure (AFS_QNH_PRESSURE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the QNH pressure in millibars to be used for pressure altitude in the altitude limit. A value of zero disables the altitude limit.

  • Units: millibar

Enable Advanced Failsafe (AFS_ENABLE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This enables the advanced failsafe system. If this is set to zero (disable) then all the other AFS options have no effect

RC failure time (AFS_RC_FAIL_MS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the time in milliseconds in manual mode that failsafe termination will activate if RC input is lost. For the OBC rules this should be 1500. Use 0 to disable.

Maximum number of GPS loss events (AFS_MAX_GPS_LOSS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Maximum number of GPS loss events before the aircraft stops returning to mission on GPS recovery. Use zero to allow for any number of GPS loss events.

Maximum number of comms loss events (AFS_MAX_COM_LOSS)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Maximum number of comms loss events before the aircraft stops returning to mission on comms recovery. Use zero to allow for any number of comms loss events.

FLOW Parameters

Optical flow enable/disable (FLOW_ENABLE)

Setting this to Enabled(1) will enable optical flow. Setting this to Disabled(0) will disable optical flow

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

X axis optical flow scale factor correction (FLOW_FXSCALER)

This sets the parts per thousand scale factor correction applied to the flow sensor X axis optical rate. It can be used to correct for variations in effective focal length. Each positive increment of 1 increases the scale factor applied to the X axis optical flow reading by 0.1%. Negative values reduce the scale factor.

  • Range: -200 +200
  • Increment: 1

Y axis optical flow scale factor correction (FLOW_FYSCALER)

This sets the parts per thousand scale factor correction applied to the flow sensor Y axis optical rate. It can be used to correct for variations in effective focal length. Each positive increment of 1 increases the scale factor applied to the Y axis optical flow reading by 0.1%. Negative values reduce the scale factor.

  • Range: -200 +200
  • Increment: 1

Flow sensor yaw alignment (FLOW_ORIENT_YAW)

Specifies the number of centi-degrees that the flow sensor is yawed relative to the vehicle. A sensor with its X-axis pointing to the right of the vehicle X axis has a positive yaw angle.

  • Range: -18000 +18000
  • Increment: 1

MIS_ Parameters

Total mission commands (MIS_TOTAL)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The number of mission mission items that has been loaded by the ground station. Do not change this manually.

  • Range: 0 32766
  • Increment: 1

Mission Restart when entering Auto mode (MIS_RESTART)

Controls mission starting point when entering Auto mode (either restart from beginning of mission or resume from last command run)

    Value Meaning
    0 Resume Mission
    1 Restart Mission

RALLY_ Parameters

Rally Total (RALLY_TOTAL)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Number of rally points currently loaded

Rally Limit (RALLY_LIMIT_KM)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Maximum distance to rally point. If the closest rally point is more than this number of kilometers from the current position and the home location is closer than any of the rally points from the current position then do RTL to home rather than to the closest rally point. This prevents a leftover rally point from a different airfield being used accidentally. If this is set to 0 then the closest rally point is always used.

  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: kilometers

Rally Include Home (RALLY_INCL_HOME)

Controls if Home is included as a Rally point (i.e. as a safe landing place) for RTL

    Value Meaning
    0 DoNotIncludeHome
    1 IncludeHome

EKF_ Parameters

Enable EKF1 (EKF_ENABLE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This enables EKF1 to be disabled when using alternative algorithms. When disabling it, the alternate EKF2 estimator must be enabled by setting EK2_ENABLED = 1 and flight control algorithms must be set to use the alternative estimator by setting AHRS_EKF_TYPE = 2.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

GPS horizontal velocity measurement noise scaler (EKF_VELNE_NOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the scaler that is applied to the speed accuracy reported by the receiver to estimate the horizontal velocity observation noise. If the model of receiver used does not provide a speed accurcy estimate, then a speed acuracy of 1 is assumed. Increasing it reduces the weighting on these measurements.

  • Range: 0.05 5.0
  • Increment: 0.05

GPS vertical velocity measurement noise scaler (EKF_VELD_NOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the scaler that is applied to the speed accuracy reported by the receiver to estimate the vertical velocity observation noise. If the model of receiver used does not provide a speed accurcy estimate, then a speed acuracy of 1 is assumed. Increasing it reduces the weighting on this measurement.

  • Range: 0.05 5.0
  • Increment: 0.05

GPS horizontal position measurement noise (m) (EKF_POSNE_NOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise in the GPS horizontal position measurements. Increasing it reduces the weighting on these measurements.

  • Range: 0.1 10.0
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: meters

Altitude measurement noise (m) (EKF_ALT_NOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise in the altitude measurement. Increasing it reduces the weighting on this measurement.

  • Range: 0.1 10.0
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: meters

Magnetometer measurement noise (Gauss) (EKF_MAG_NOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise in magnetometer measurements. Increasing it reduces the weighting on these measurements.

  • Range: 0.01 0.5
  • Increment: 0.01

Equivalent airspeed measurement noise (m/s) (EKF_EAS_NOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise in equivalent airspeed measurements. Increasing it reduces the weighting on these measurements.

  • Range: 0.5 5.0
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: m/s

Wind velocity process noise (m/s^2) (EKF_WIND_PNOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This noise controls the growth of wind state error estimates. Increasing it makes wind estimation faster and noisier.

  • Range: 0.01 1.0
  • Increment: 0.1

Height rate to wind procss noise scaler (EKF_WIND_PSCALE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Increasing this parameter increases how rapidly the wind states adapt when changing altitude, but does make wind speed estimation noiser.

  • Range: 0.0 1.0
  • Increment: 0.1

Rate gyro noise (rad/s) (EKF_GYRO_PNOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This noise controls the growth of estimated error due to gyro measurement errors excluding bias. Increasing it makes the flter trust the gyro measurements less and other measurements more.

  • Range: 0.001 0.05
  • Increment: 0.001
  • Units: rad/s

Accelerometer noise (m/s^2) (EKF_ACC_PNOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This noise controls the growth of estimated error due to accelerometer measurement errors excluding bias. Increasing it makes the flter trust the accelerometer measurements less and other measurements more.

  • Range: 0.05 1.0
  • Increment: 0.01
  • Units: m/s/s

Rate gyro bias process noise (rad/s) (EKF_GBIAS_PNOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This noise controls the growth of gyro bias state error estimates. Increasing it makes rate gyro bias estimation faster and noisier.

  • Range: 0.0000001 0.00001
  • Units: rad/s

Accelerometer bias process noise (m/s^2) (EKF_ABIAS_PNOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This noise controls the growth of the vertical acelerometer bias state error estimate. Increasing it makes accelerometer bias estimation faster and noisier.

  • Range: 0.00001 0.001
  • Units: m/s/s

Earth magnetic field process noise (gauss/s) (EKF_MAGE_PNOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This noise controls the growth of earth magnetic field state error estimates. Increasing it makes earth magnetic field bias estimation faster and noisier.

  • Range: 0.0001 0.01
  • Units: gauss/s

Body magnetic field process noise (gauss/s) (EKF_MAGB_PNOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This noise controls the growth of body magnetic field state error estimates. Increasing it makes compass offset estimation faster and noisier.

  • Range: 0.0001 0.01
  • Units: gauss/s

GPS velocity measurement delay (msec) (EKF_VEL_DELAY)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the number of msec that the GPS velocity measurements lag behind the inertial measurements.

  • Range: 0 500
  • Increment: 10
  • Units: milliseconds

GPS position measurement delay (msec) (EKF_POS_DELAY)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the number of msec that the GPS position measurements lag behind the inertial measurements.

  • Range: 0 500
  • Increment: 10
  • Units: milliseconds

GPS mode control (EKF_GPS_TYPE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter controls use of GPS measurements : 0 = use 3D velocity & 2D position, 1 = use 2D velocity and 2D position, 2 = use 2D position, 3 = use no GPS (optical flow will be used if available)

    Value Meaning
    0 GPS 3D Vel and 2D Pos
    1 GPS 2D vel and 2D pos
    2 GPS 2D pos
    3 No GPS use optical flow

GPS velocity measurement gate size (EKF_VEL_GATE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the number of standard deviations applied to the GPS velocity measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements willbe rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

  • Range: 1 100
  • Increment: 1

GPS position measurement gate size (EKF_POS_GATE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the number of standard deviations applied to the GPS position measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

  • Range: 1 100
  • Increment: 1

Height measurement gate size (EKF_HGT_GATE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the number of standard deviations applied to the height measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

  • Range: 1 100
  • Increment: 1

Magnetometer measurement gate size (EKF_MAG_GATE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the number of standard deviations applied to the magnetometer measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

  • Range: 1 100
  • Increment: 1

Airspeed measurement gate size (EKF_EAS_GATE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the number of standard deviations applied to the airspeed measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

  • Range: 1 100
  • Increment: 1

Magnetometer calibration mode (EKF_MAG_CAL)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

EKF_MAG_CAL = 0 enables calibration based on flying speed and altitude and is the default setting for Plane users. EKF_MAG_CAL = 1 enables calibration based on manoeuvre level and is the default setting for Copter and Rover users. EKF_MAG_CAL = 2 prevents magnetometer calibration regardless of flight condition and is recommended if in-flight magnetometer calibration is unreliable.

    Value Meaning
    0 Speed and Height
    1 Acceleration
    2 Never
    3 Always

GPS glitch accel gate size (cm/s^2) (EKF_GLITCH_ACCEL)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter controls the maximum amount of difference in horizontal acceleration between the value predicted by the filter and the value measured by the GPS before the GPS position data is rejected. If this value is set too low, then valid GPS data will be regularly discarded, and the position accuracy will degrade. If this parameter is set too high, then large GPS glitches will cause large rapid changes in position.

  • Range: 100 500
  • Increment: 50

GPS glitch radius gate size (m) (EKF_GLITCH_RAD)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter controls the maximum amount of difference in horizontal position (in m) between the value predicted by the filter and the value measured by the GPS before the long term glitch protection logic is activated and the filter states are reset to the new GPS position. Position steps smaller than this value will be temporarily ignored, but will then be accepted and the filter will move to the new position. Position steps larger than this value will be ignored initially, but the filter will then apply an offset to the GPS position measurement.

  • Range: 10 50
  • Increment: 5
  • Units: meters

Terrain Gradient % RMS (EKF_GND_GRADIENT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the RMS terrain gradient percentage assumed by the terrain height estimation. Terrain height can be estimated using optical flow and/or range finder sensor data if fitted. Smaller values cause the terrain height estimate to be slower to respond to changes in measurement. Larger values casue the terrain height estimate to be faster to respond, but also more noisy. Generally this value can be reduced if operating over very flat terrain and increased if operating over uneven terrain.

  • Range: 1 50
  • Increment: 1

Optical flow measurement noise (rad/s) (EKF_FLOW_NOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise and errors in optical flow measurements. Increasing it reduces the weighting on these measurements.

  • Range: 0.05 1.0
  • Increment: 0.05
  • Units: rad/s

Optical Flow measurement gate size (EKF_FLOW_GATE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the number of standard deviations applied to the optical flow innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

  • Range: 1 100
  • Increment: 1

Optical Flow measurement delay (msec) (EKF_FLOW_DELAY)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the number of msec that the optical flow measurements lag behind the inertial measurements. It is the time from the end of the optical flow averaging period and does not include the time delay due to the 100msec of averaging within the flow sensor.

  • Range: 0 500
  • Increment: 10
  • Units: milliseconds

Range finder measurement gate size (EKF_RNG_GATE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the number of standard deviations applied to the range finder innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

  • Range: 1 100
  • Increment: 1

Maximum valid optical flow rate (EKF_MAX_FLOW)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the magnitude maximum optical flow rate in rad/sec that will be accepted by the filter

  • Range: 1.0 4.0
  • Increment: 0.1

Fallback strictness (EKF_FALLBACK)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter controls the conditions necessary to trigger a fallback to DCM and INAV. A value of 1 will cause fallbacks to occur on loss of GPS and other conditions. A value of 0 will trust the EKF more.

    Value Meaning
    0 Trust EKF more
    1 Trust DCM more

Primary height source (EKF_ALT_SOURCE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter controls which height sensor is used by the EKF during optical flow navigation (when EKF_GPS_TYPE = 3). A value of will 0 cause it to always use baro altitude. A value of 1 will casue it to use range finder if available.

    Value Meaning
    0 Use Baro
    1 Use Range Finder

GPS preflight check (EKF_GPS_CHECK)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

1 byte bitmap of GPS preflight checks to perform. Set to 0 to bypass all checks. Set to 255 perform all checks. Set to 3 to check just the number of satellites and HDoP. Set to 31 for the most rigorous checks that will still allow checks to pass when the copter is moving, eg launch from a boat.

  • Bitmask: 0:NSats,1:HDoP,2:speed error,3:horiz pos error,4:yaw error,5:pos drift,6:vert speed,7:horiz speed

EK2_ Parameters

Enable EKF2 (EK2_ENABLE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This enables EKF2. Enabling EKF2 only makes the maths run, it does not mean it will be used for flight control. To use it for flight control set AHRS_EKF_TYPE=2. A reboot or restart will need to be performed after changing the value of EK2_ENABLE for it to take effect.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 Enabled

GPS mode control (EK2_GPS_TYPE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls use of GPS measurements : 0 = use 3D velocity & 2D position, 1 = use 2D velocity and 2D position, 2 = use 2D position, 3 = use no GPS (optical flow will be used if available)

    Value Meaning
    0 GPS 3D Vel and 2D Pos
    1 GPS 2D vel and 2D pos
    2 GPS 2D pos
    3 No GPS use optical flow

GPS horizontal velocity measurement noise (m/s) (EK2_VELNE_NOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets a lower limit on the speed accuracy reported by the GPS receiver that is used to set horizontal velocity observation noise. If the model of receiver used does not provide a speed accurcy estimate, then the parameter value will be used. Increasing it reduces the weighting of the GPS horizontal velocity measurements.

  • Range: 0.05 5.0
  • Increment: 0.05
  • Units: m/s

GPS vertical velocity measurement noise (m/s) (EK2_VELD_NOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets a lower limit on the speed accuracy reported by the GPS receiver that is used to set vertical velocity observation noise. If the model of receiver used does not provide a speed accurcy estimate, then the parameter value will be used. Increasing it reduces the weighting of the GPS vertical velocity measurements.

  • Range: 0.05 5.0
  • Increment: 0.05
  • Units: m/s

GPS velocity innovation gate size (EK2_VEL_GATE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the percentage number of standard deviations applied to the GPS velocity measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements willbe rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

  • Range: 100 1000
  • Increment: 25

GPS horizontal position measurement noise (m) (EK2_POSNE_NOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the GPS horizontal position observation noise. Increasing it reduces the weighting of GPS horizontal position measurements.

  • Range: 0.1 10.0
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: m

GPS position measurement gate size (EK2_POS_GATE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the percentage number of standard deviations applied to the GPS position measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

  • Range: 100 1000
  • Increment: 25

GPS glitch radius gate size (m) (EK2_GLITCH_RAD)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the maximum radial uncertainty in position between the value predicted by the filter and the value measured by the GPS before the filter position and velocity states are reset to the GPS. Making this value larger allows the filter to ignore larger GPS glitches but also means that non-GPS errors such as IMU and compass can create a larger error in position before the filter is forced back to the GPS position.

  • Range: 10 100
  • Increment: 5
  • Units: m

GPS measurement delay (msec) (EK2_GPS_DELAY)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the number of msec that the GPS measurements lag behind the inertial measurements.

  • Range: 0 250
  • Increment: 10
  • Units: msec

Primary height source (EK2_ALT_SOURCE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter controls which height sensor is used by the EKF. If the selected optionn cannot be used, it will default to Baro as the primary height source. Setting 0 will use the baro altitude at all times. Setting 1 uses the range finder and is only available in combination with optical flow navigation (EK2_GPS_TYPE = 3). Setting 2 uses GPS.

    Value Meaning
    0 Use Baro
    1 Use Range Finder
    2 Use GPS

Altitude measurement noise (m) (EK2_ALT_NOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise in the altitude measurement. Increasing it reduces the weighting of the baro measurement and will make the filter respond more slowly to baro measurement errors, but will make it more sensitive to GPS and accelerometer errors.

  • Range: 0.1 10.0
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: m

Height measurement gate size (EK2_HGT_GATE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the percentage number of standard deviations applied to the height measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

  • Range: 100 1000
  • Increment: 25

Height measurement delay (msec) (EK2_HGT_DELAY)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the number of msec that the Height measurements lag behind the inertial measurements.

  • Range: 0 250
  • Increment: 10
  • Units: msec

Magnetometer measurement noise (Gauss) (EK2_MAG_NOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise in magnetometer measurements. Increasing it reduces the weighting on these measurements.

  • Range: 0.01 0.5
  • Increment: 0.01
  • Units: gauss

Magnetometer calibration mode (EK2_MAG_CAL)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

EKF_MAG_CAL = 0 enables calibration when airborne and is the default setting for Plane users. EKF_MAG_CAL = 1 enables calibration when manoeuvreing. EKF_MAG_CAL = 2 prevents magnetometer calibration regardless of flight condition, is recommended if the external magnetic field is varying and is the default for rovers. EKF_MAG_CAL = 3 enables calibration when the first in-air field and yaw reset has completed and is the default for copters. EKF_MAG_CAL = 4 enables calibration all the time. This determines when the filter will use the 3-axis magnetometer fusion model that estimates both earth and body fixed magnetic field states. This model is only suitable for use when the external magnetic field environment is stable.

    Value Meaning
    0 When flying
    1 When manoeuvring
    2 Never
    3 After first climb yaw reset
    4 Always

Magnetometer measurement gate size (EK2_MAG_GATE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the percentage number of standard deviations applied to the magnetometer measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

  • Range: 100 1000
  • Increment: 25

Equivalent airspeed measurement noise (m/s) (EK2_EAS_NOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise in equivalent airspeed measurements used by planes. Increasing it reduces the weighting of airspeed measurements and will make wind speed estimates less noisy and slower to converge. Increasing also increases navigation errors when dead-reckoning without GPS measurements.

  • Range: 0.5 5.0
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: m/s

Airspeed measurement gate size (EK2_EAS_GATE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the percentage number of standard deviations applied to the airspeed measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

  • Range: 100 1000
  • Increment: 25

Range finder measurement noise (m) (EK2_RNG_NOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise in the range finder measurement. Increasing it reduces the weighting on this measurement.

  • Range: 0.1 10.0
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: m

Range finder measurement gate size (EK2_RNG_GATE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the percentage number of standard deviations applied to the range finder innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

  • Range: 100 1000
  • Increment: 25

Maximum valid optical flow rate (EK2_MAX_FLOW)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the magnitude maximum optical flow rate in rad/sec that will be accepted by the filter

  • Range: 1.0 4.0
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: rad/s

Optical flow measurement noise (rad/s) (EK2_FLOW_NOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise and errors in optical flow measurements. Increasing it reduces the weighting on these measurements.

  • Range: 0.05 1.0
  • Increment: 0.05
  • Units: rad/s

Optical Flow measurement gate size (EK2_FLOW_GATE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the percentage number of standard deviations applied to the optical flow innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

  • Range: 100 1000
  • Increment: 25

Optical Flow measurement delay (msec) (EK2_FLOW_DELAY)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the number of msec that the optical flow measurements lag behind the inertial measurements. It is the time from the end of the optical flow averaging period and does not include the time delay due to the 100msec of averaging within the flow sensor.

  • Range: 0 250
  • Increment: 10
  • Units: msec

Rate gyro noise (rad/s) (EK2_GYRO_PNOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This control disturbance noise controls the growth of estimated error due to gyro measurement errors excluding bias. Increasing it makes the flter trust the gyro measurements less and other measurements more.

  • Range: 0.0001 0.01
  • Increment: 0.0001
  • Units: rad/s

Accelerometer noise (m/s^2) (EK2_ACC_PNOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This control disturbance noise controls the growth of estimated error due to accelerometer measurement errors excluding bias. Increasing it makes the flter trust the accelerometer measurements less and other measurements more.

  • Range: 0.01 1.0
  • Increment: 0.01
  • Units: m/s/s

Rate gyro bias process noise (rad/s) (EK2_GBIAS_PNOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This state process noise controls growth of the gyro delta angle bias state error estimate. Increasing it makes rate gyro bias estimation faster and noisier.

  • Range: 0.0000001 0.00001
  • Units: rad/s

Rate gyro scale factor process noise (1/s) (EK2_GSCL_PNOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This noise controls the rate of gyro scale factor learning. Increasing it makes rate gyro scale factor estimation faster and noisier.

  • Range: 0.0000001 0.00001
  • Units: 1/s

Accelerometer bias process noise (m/s^2) (EK2_ABIAS_PNOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This noise controls the growth of the vertical accelerometer delta velocity bias state error estimate. Increasing it makes accelerometer bias estimation faster and noisier.

  • Range: 0.00001 0.001
  • Units: m/s/s

Magnetic field process noise (gauss/s) (EK2_MAG_PNOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This state process noise controls the growth of magnetic field state error estimates. Increasing it makes magnetic field bias estimation faster and noisier.

  • Range: 0.0001 0.01
  • Units: gauss/s

Wind velocity process noise (m/s^2) (EK2_WIND_PNOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This state process noise controls the growth of wind state error estimates. Increasing it makes wind estimation faster and noisier.

  • Range: 0.01 1.0
  • Increment: 0.1
  • Units: m/s/s

Height rate to wind procss noise scaler (EK2_WIND_PSCALE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls how much the process noise on the wind states is increased when gaining or losing altitude to take into account changes in wind speed and direction with altitude. Increasing this parameter increases how rapidly the wind states adapt when changing altitude, but does make wind velocity estimation noiser.

  • Range: 0.0 1.0
  • Increment: 0.1

GPS preflight check (EK2_GPS_CHECK)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is a 1 byte bitmap controlling which GPS preflight checks are performed. Set to 0 to bypass all checks. Set to 255 perform all checks. Set to 3 to check just the number of satellites and HDoP. Set to 31 for the most rigorous checks that will still allow checks to pass when the copter is moving, eg launch from a boat.

  • Bitmask: 0:NSats,1:HDoP,2:speed error,3:horiz pos error,4:yaw error,5:pos drift,6:vert speed,7:horiz speed

Bitmask of active IMUs (EK2_IMU_MASK)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

1 byte bitmap of IMUs to use in EKF2. A separate instance of EKF2 will be started for each IMU selected. Set to 1 to use the first IMU only (default), set to 2 to use the second IMU only, set to 3 to use the first and second IMU. Additional IMU’s can be used up to a maximum of 6 if memory and processing resources permit. There may be insufficient memory and processing resources to run multiple instances. If this occurs EKF2 will fail to start.

  • Range: 1 127

GPS accuracy check scaler (%) (EK2_CHECK_SCALE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This scales the thresholds that are used to check GPS accuracy before it is used by the EKF. A value of 100 is the default. Values greater than 100 increase and values less than 100 reduce the maximum GPS error the EKF will accept. A value of 200 will double the allowable GPS error.

  • Range: 50 200
  • Units: %

Non-GPS operation velocity change (m/s) (EK2_NOAID_NOISE)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the amount of velocity change that the EKF allows for when operating without external measurements (eg GPs or optical flow). Increasing this parameter makes the EKF attitude estimate less affected by changes in vehicle velocity but also makes the EKF attitude estimate more affected by IMU errors.

  • Range: 0.5 25.0
  • Units: m/s

RPM Parameters

RPM type (RPM_TYPE)

What type of RPM sensor is connected

    Value Meaning
    0 None
    1 PX4-PWM

RPM scaling (RPM_SCALING)

Scaling factor between sensor reading and RPM.

  • Increment: 0.001

Maximum RPM (RPM_MAX)

Maximum RPM to report

  • Increment: 1

Minimum RPM (RPM_MIN)

Minimum RPM to report

  • Increment: 1

Minimum Quality (RPM_MIN_QUAL)

Minimum data quality to be used

  • Increment: 0.1

Second RPM type (RPM2_TYPE)

What type of RPM sensor is connected

    Value Meaning
    0 None
    1 PX4-PWM

RPM scaling (RPM2_SCALING)

Scaling factor between sensor reading and RPM.

  • Increment: 0.001

RSSI_ Parameters

RSSI Type (RSSI_TYPE)

Radio Receiver RSSI type. If your radio receiver supports RSSI of some kind, set it here, then set its associated RSSI_XXXXX parameters, if any.

    Value Meaning
    0 Disabled
    1 AnalogPin
    2 RCChannelPwmValue

Receiver RSSI analog sensing pin (RSSI_ANA_PIN)

This selects an analog pin where the receiver RSSI voltage will be read.

    Value Meaning
    0 APM2 A0
    1 APM2 A1
    13 APM2 A13
    103 Pixhawk SBUS

Receiver RSSI voltage low (RSSI_PIN_LOW)

This is the voltage value that the radio receiver will put on the RSSI_ANA_PIN when the signal strength is the weakest. Since some radio receivers put out inverted values from what you might otherwise expect, this isn’t necessarily a lower value than RSSI_PIN_HIGH.

  • Range: 0 5.0
  • Increment: 0.01
  • Units: Volt

Receiver RSSI voltage high (RSSI_PIN_HIGH)

This is the voltage value that the radio receiver will put on the RSSI_ANA_PIN when the signal strength is the strongest. Since some radio receivers put out inverted values from what you might otherwise expect, this isn’t necessarily a higher value than RSSI_PIN_LOW.

  • Range: 0 5.0
  • Increment: 0.01
  • Units: Volt

Receiver RSSI channel number (RSSI_CHANNEL)

The channel number where RSSI will be output by the radio receiver.

    Value Meaning
    5 Channel5
    6 Channel6
    7 Channel7
    8 Channel8
  • Units:

Receiver RSSI PWM low value (RSSI_CHAN_LOW)

This is the PWM value that the radio receiver will put on the RSSI_CHANNEL when the signal strength is the weakest. Since some radio receivers put out inverted values from what you might otherwise expect, this isn’t necessarily a lower value than RSSI_CHAN_HIGH.

  • Range: 0 2000
  • Units: Microseconds

Receiver RSSI PWM high value (RSSI_CHAN_HIGH)

This is the PWM value that the radio receiver will put on the RSSI_CHANNEL when the signal strength is the strongest. Since some radio receivers put out inverted values from what you might otherwise expect, this isn’t necessarily a higher value than RSSI_CHAN_LOW.

  • Range: 0 2000
  • Units: Microseconds

NTF_ Parameters

LED Brightness (NTF_LED_BRIGHT)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Select the RGB LED brightness level. When USB is connected brightness will never be higher than low regardless of the setting.

    Value Meaning
    0 Off
    1 Low
    2 Medium
    3 High

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